system-integration

Photovoltaic Roof Panels

The house shwon above was one of the first buildings in the UK to be built with a roof made from photovoltaic material. Please click on the image to expand.

System Integration

What is Systems Integration?

The term "systems integration", with regards to solar powered systems, is used to describe how a photovoltaic or solar thermal module is connected and deployed to make the best use of the climatic conditions and local environment. 

For example the application of a PV panel to the roof of a house includes a range of power electronics, including inverters, charge controllers, multiple power point tracking, and batteries( in the case of an off-grid system), which all influence the overall efficiency of the PV system. 

In addition, a combination of photovoltaic and thermal technologies within the same device can be formed. These systems typically consist of PV panel with a thermal absorber plate attached at the rear. The purpose of the absorber is two fold: Firdtly to collect thermal energy that would otherwise be lost and secondly to cool the PV panel, therefore improving its electrical properties.  

 

What are the challenges for Systems Integration?

Tracking the maximum power point of a PV array is essential to any PV system if high system efficiencies are to be achieved. Commercial power converters are not designed to deal with the resulting non-ideal system characteristics, and thus often deliver poor tracking performance. A key issue, therefore, is the development of new tracking algorithms that are able to track effectively under real operating conditions.

With high densities of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) arrays in the distribution grid, variable irradiance can lead to undesirable variations of power quality at the point of connection. The output from the power converters that interface PV arrays to the grid may also vary in quality. In addition, as the numbers of grid-connected PV sources increases, the demands on the electrical energy aggregation and control systems also increase.

 

How are these challenges being addressed by SISER researchers?

The reliability and robustness of PV systems over time is a research area at Heriot-Watt University. Their expertise include reliability engineering and ways to predict the electrical component/system reliability under harsh operating conditions.

Researchers at Strathclyde have been working on the development of maximum power point tracking algorithms for PV systems capable of delivering high power quality under non-ideal ‘real world’ operating conditions. They are also looking to address the issues associated with grid connection by considering the design of power electronic converters and their control algorithms that comprise the PV energy delivery system.

Power electronics based grid integration PV system research is being carried out at the University of Aberdeen.  Different power electronics converter topologies (current source or voltage source) are recommended for grid connection and isolated systems. To enhance the PV system efficiency and performance, different maximum power point tracking algorithms are being developed and designed especially for partial shading conditions. The parallel operation of different PV units is under investigating for megawatt power range to achieve more secure and reliable source.

 

SISER researchers with interest in this area are: Dr Khaled AhmedDr Steve Finney, Dr Derrick Holliday, Prof. David Infield, Prof. Andrew Knox, Dr Tadgh O'DonovanDr Manosh PauDr Jonathan Swingler and Dr Ahmed Aboushady

Full details of all SISER researchers are found on the SISER People Page

 

Publications

  1. Abd Halid Abdullah, Qinglin Meng, Lihua Zhao and Fan Wang. Field study on indoor thermal environment in an atrium in tropical climates. Building and Environment 44(2):431-436, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{Field study on indoor thermal environment in an atrium in tropical climates,
    	author = "Abdullah, Abd Halid and Meng, Qinglin and Zhao, Lihua and Wang, Fan",
    	title = "Field study on indoor thermal environment in an atrium in tropical climates",
    	journal = "Building and Environment",
    	volume = 44,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "431-436",
    	note = "Times Cited: 4 4",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  2. Siti Hawa Abu-Bakar, Firdaus Muhammad-Sukki, Roberto Ramirez-Iniguez, Stas Burek, Tapas Kumar Mallick, Campbell McLennan, Abu Bakar Munir, Siti Hajar Mohd Yasin and Ieee. Renewable Heat Incentive for Solar Thermal Systems in the United Kingdom: The Next Big Thing?. 2012 Ieee International Conference on Power and Energy (Pecon), pages 626-631, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Renewable Heat Incentive for Solar Thermal Systems in the United Kingdom: The Next Big Thing?,
    	author = "Abu-Bakar, Siti Hawa and Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus and Ramirez-Iniguez, Roberto and Burek, Stas and Mallick, Tapas Kumar and McLennan, Campbell and Munir, Abu Bakar and Yasin, Siti Hajar Mohd and Ieee",
    	title = "Renewable Heat Incentive for Solar Thermal Systems in the United Kingdom: The Next Big Thing?",
    	journal = "2012 Ieee International Conference on Power and Energy (Pecon)",
    	pages = "626-631",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon) Dec 02-05, 2012 Kota Kinabalu, MALAYSIA IEEE Malaysia; IEEE Malasia Power Elect (PEL), Ind Elect (IE), Ind Applicat (IA) Joint Chapter; IEEE Malaysia Power & Energy Chapter 978-1-4673-5019-8",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  3. Grain Philip Adam, Khaled H Ahmed, Stephen J Finney, Keith Bell and Barry W Williams. New Breed of Network Fault-Tolerant Voltage-Source-Converter HVDC Transmission System. Ieee Transactions on Power Systems 28(1):335-346, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{New Breed of Network Fault-Tolerant Voltage-Source-Converter HVDC Transmission System,
    	author = "Adam, Grain Philip and Ahmed, Khaled H. and Finney, Stephen J. and Bell, Keith and Williams, Barry W.",
    	title = "New Breed of Network Fault-Tolerant Voltage-Source-Converter HVDC Transmission System",
    	journal = "Ieee Transactions on Power Systems",
    	volume = 28,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "335-346",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  4. B N Alajmi, K H Ahmed, G P Adam, S J Finney, B W Williams and Ieee. Modular Multilevel Inverter with Maximum Power Point Tracking for Grid Connected Photovoltaic Application. 2011 Ieee International Symposium on Industrial Electronics series, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @book{Modular Multilevel Inverter with Maximum Power Point Tracking for Grid Connected Photovoltaic Application,
    	author = "Alajmi, B. N. and Ahmed, K. H. and Adam, G. P. and Finney, S. J. and Williams, B. W. and Ieee",
    	title = "Modular Multilevel Inverter with Maximum Power Point Tracking for Grid Connected Photovoltaic Application",
    	series = "2011 Ieee International Symposium on Industrial Electronics",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 lin, jeremy/E-9182-2013 Isie 20th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) Jun 27-30, 2011 Gdansk, POLAND Inst Elect & Elect Engineers (IEEE); IEEE Ind Elect Soc (IES); Gdansk Univ Technol",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  5. Bader N Alajmi, Khaled H Ahmed, Stephen J Finney and Barry W Williams. Fuzzy-Logic-Control Approach of a Modified Hill-Climbing Method for Maximum Power Point in Microgrid Standalone Photovoltaic System. Ieee Transactions on Power Electronics 26(4):1022-1030, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Fuzzy-Logic-Control Approach of a Modified Hill-Climbing Method for Maximum Power Point in Microgrid Standalone Photovoltaic System,
    	author = "Alajmi, Bader N. and Ahmed, Khaled H. and Finney, Stephen J. and Williams, Barry W.",
    	title = "Fuzzy-Logic-Control Approach of a Modified Hill-Climbing Method for Maximum Power Point in Microgrid Standalone Photovoltaic System",
    	journal = "Ieee Transactions on Power Electronics",
    	volume = 26,
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "1022-1030",
    	note = "Times Cited: 18 SI",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  6. Bader N Alajmi, Khaled H Ahmed, Stephen J Finney and Barry W Williams. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique for Partially Shaded Photovoltaic Systems in Microgrids. Ieee Transactions on Industrial Electronics 60(4):1596-1606, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{A Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique for Partially Shaded Photovoltaic Systems in Microgrids,
    	author = "Alajmi, Bader N. and Ahmed, Khaled H. and Finney, Stephen J. and Williams, Barry W.",
    	title = "A Maximum Power Point Tracking Technique for Partially Shaded Photovoltaic Systems in Microgrids",
    	journal = "Ieee Transactions on Industrial Electronics",
    	volume = 60,
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "1596-1606",
    	note = "Times Cited: 4 4",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  7. M Asif, J Currie, T Muneer and J Kubie. Security assessment of importing solar electricity for the EU. Journal of the Energy Institute 82(2):102-105, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{Security assessment of importing solar electricity for the EU,
    	author = "Asif, M. and Currie, J. and Muneer, T. and Kubie, J.",
    	title = "Security assessment of importing solar electricity for the EU",
    	journal = "Journal of the Energy Institute",
    	volume = 82,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "102-105",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  8. Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(7):1388-1413, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Energy supply,
    	its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies, author = "Asif, M. and Muneer, T.",
    	title = "Energy supply, its demand and security issues for developed and emerging economies",
    	journal = "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews",
    	volume = 11,
    	number = 7,
    	pages = "1388-1413",
    	note = "Times Cited: 87 87",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  9. Syahrul Ashikin Azmi, Grain Philip Adam, Khaled H Ahmed, Stephen J Finney and Barry W Williams. Grid Interfacing of Multimegawatt Photovoltaic Inverters. Ieee Transactions on Power Electronics 28(6):2770-2784, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Grid Interfacing of Multimegawatt Photovoltaic Inverters,
    	author = "Azmi, Syahrul Ashikin and Adam, Grain Philip and Ahmed, Khaled H. and Finney, Stephen J. and Williams, Barry W.",
    	title = "Grid Interfacing of Multimegawatt Photovoltaic Inverters",
    	journal = "Ieee Transactions on Power Electronics",
    	volume = 28,
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "2770-2784",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  10. John P Barton and David G Infield. A probabilistic method for calculating the usefulness of a store with finite energy capacity for smoothing electricity generation from wind and solar power. Journal of Power Sources 162(2):943-948, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{A probabilistic method for calculating the usefulness of a store with finite energy capacity for smoothing electricity generation from wind and solar power,
    	author = "Barton, John P. and Infield, David G.",
    	title = "A probabilistic method for calculating the usefulness of a store with finite energy capacity for smoothing electricity generation from wind and solar power",
    	journal = "Journal of Power Sources",
    	volume = 162,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "943-948",
    	note = "Times Cited: 19 Si International Power Sources Symposium 2005 Apr 19-21, 2005 Brighton, ENGLAND Cea genec 19",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  11. S A M Burek and A Habeb. Air flow and thermal efficiency characteristics in solar chimneys and Trombe Walls. Energy and Buildings 39(2):128-135, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Air flow and thermal efficiency characteristics in solar chimneys and Trombe Walls,
    	author = "Burek, S. A. M. and Habeb, A.",
    	title = "Air flow and thermal efficiency characteristics in solar chimneys and Trombe Walls",
    	journal = "Energy and Buildings",
    	volume = 39,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "128-135",
    	note = "Times Cited: 26 26",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  12. Ali N Celik and Tariq Muneer. Neural network based method for conversion of solar radiation data. Energy Conversion and Management 67:117-124, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Neural network based method for conversion of solar radiation data,
    	author = "Celik, Ali N. and Muneer, Tariq",
    	title = "Neural network based method for conversion of solar radiation data",
    	journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
    	volume = 67,
    	pages = "117-124",
    	note = "Times Cited: 3 3",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  13. A N Celik, T Muneer and P Clarke. Optimal sizing and life cycle assessment of residential photovoltaic energy systems with battery storage. Progress in Photovoltaics 16(1):69-85, 2008.
    BibTeX

    @article{Optimal sizing and life cycle assessment of residential photovoltaic energy systems with battery storage,
    	author = "Celik, A. N. and Muneer, T. and Clarke, P.",
    	title = "Optimal sizing and life cycle assessment of residential photovoltaic energy systems with battery storage",
    	journal = "Progress in Photovoltaics",
    	volume = 16,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "69-85",
    	note = "Times Cited: 9 9",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  14. Ali Naci Celik, Tariq Muneer and Peter Clarke. A review of installed solar photovoltaic and thermal collector capacities in relation to solar potential for the EU-15. Renewable Energy 34(3):849-856, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{A review of installed solar photovoltaic and thermal collector capacities in relation to solar potential for the EU-15,
    	author = "Celik, Ali Naci and Muneer, Tariq and Clarke, Peter",
    	title = "A review of installed solar photovoltaic and thermal collector capacities in relation to solar potential for the EU-15",
    	journal = "Renewable Energy",
    	volume = 34,
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "849-856",
    	note = "Times Cited: 14 14",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  15. R Claywell, T Muneer and M Asif. An efficient method for assessing the quality of large solar irradiance datasets. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme 127(1):150-152, 2005.
    BibTeX

    @article{An efficient method for assessing the quality of large solar irradiance datasets,
    	author = "Claywell, R. and Muneer, T. and Asif, M.",
    	title = "An efficient method for assessing the quality of large solar irradiance datasets",
    	journal = "Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme",
    	volume = 127,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "150-152",
    	note = "Times Cited: 2 2",
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  16. G J Conibeer and B S Richards. A comparison of PV/electrolyser and photoelectrolytic technologies for use in solar to hydrogen energy storage systems. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32(14):2703-2711, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{A comparison of PV/electrolyser and photoelectrolytic technologies for use in solar to hydrogen energy storage systems,
    	author = "Conibeer, G. J. and Richards, B. S.",
    	title = "A comparison of PV/electrolyser and photoelectrolytic technologies for use in solar to hydrogen energy storage systems",
    	journal = "International Journal of Hydrogen Energy",
    	volume = 32,
    	number = 14,
    	pages = "2703-2711",
    	note = "Times Cited: 19 Si International Conference on Materials for Hydrogen Energy Aug 27, 2004 Univ New S Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA 19",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  17. M Fuentes, S Roaf and Ieee. Integration of PV technology into the building environment: A model for the thermal regulation of PV-roof integrated systems. Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference series, pages 1385-1388, 1997.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{Integration of PV technology into the building environment: A model for the thermal regulation of PV-roof integrated systems,
    	author = "Fuentes, M. and Roaf, S. and Ieee",
    	title = "Integration of PV technology into the building environment: A model for the thermal regulation of PV-roof integrated systems",
    	booktitle = "Conference Record of the Twenty Sixth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference - 1997",
    	series = "Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference",
    	pages = "1385-1388",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Sep 29-oct 03, 1997 Anaheim, ca IEEE Electron Devices Soc",
    	year = 1997
    }
    
  18. R Gottschalg, T R Betts, D G Infield and M J Kearney. On the importance of considering the incident spectrum when measuring the outdoor performance of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices. Measurement Science & Technology 15(2):460-466, 2004.
    BibTeX

    @article{On the importance of considering the incident spectrum when measuring the outdoor performance of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices,
    	author = "Gottschalg, R. and Betts, T. R. and Infield, D. G. and Kearney, M. J.",
    	title = "On the importance of considering the incident spectrum when measuring the outdoor performance of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices",
    	journal = "Measurement Science & Technology",
    	volume = 15,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "460-466",
    	note = "Times Cited: 14 Betts, Thomas/F-9010-2010; Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 14",
    	year = 2004
    }
    
  19. R Gottschalg, T R Betts, D G Infield and M J Kearney. The effect of spectral variations on the performance parameters of single and double junction amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 85(3):415-428, 2005.
    BibTeX

    @article{The effect of spectral variations on the performance parameters of single and double junction amorphous silicon solar cells,
    	author = "Gottschalg, R. and Betts, T. R. and Infield, D. G. and Kearney, M. J.",
    	title = "The effect of spectral variations on the performance parameters of single and double junction amorphous silicon solar cells",
    	journal = "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells",
    	volume = 85,
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "415-428",
    	note = "Times Cited: 16 Betts, Thomas/F-9010-2010; Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 16",
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  20. R Gottschalg, T R Betts, D G Infield, M J Kearney and Ieee Ieee. Experimental investigation of spectral effects on amorphous silicon solar cells in outdoor operation. Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2002 series, 2002.
    BibTeX

    @book{Experimental investigation of spectral effects on amorphous silicon solar cells in outdoor operation,
    	author = "Gottschalg, R. and Betts, T. R. and Infield, D. G. and Kearney, M. J. and Ieee, Ieee",
    	title = "Experimental investigation of spectral effects on amorphous silicon solar cells in outdoor operation",
    	series = "Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2002",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Betts, Thomas/F-9010-2010; Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference May 19-24, 2002 New orleans, la IEEE Electron Devices Soc",
    	pages = "1138-1141",
    	year = 2002
    }
    
  21. R Gottschalg, T R Betts, S R Williams, D Sauter, D G Infield and M J Kearney. A critical appraisal of the factors affecting energy production from amorphous silicon photovoltaic arrays in a maritime climate. Solar Energy 77(6):909-916, 2004.
    BibTeX

    @article{A critical appraisal of the factors affecting energy production from amorphous silicon photovoltaic arrays in a maritime climate,
    	author = "Gottschalg, R. and Betts, T. R. and Williams, S. R. and Sauter, D. and Infield, D. G. and Kearney, M. J.",
    	title = "A critical appraisal of the factors affecting energy production from amorphous silicon photovoltaic arrays in a maritime climate",
    	journal = "Solar Energy",
    	volume = 77,
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "909-916",
    	note = "Times Cited: 8 Betts, Thomas/F-9010-2010; Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 8",
    	year = 2004
    }
    
  22. R Gottschalg, J Cueto, T R Betts, S R Williams and D G Infield. Investigating the seasonal performance of amorphous silicon single- and multi-junction modules. Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Vols a-C series, 2003.
    BibTeX

    @book{Investigating the seasonal performance of amorphous silicon single- and multi-junction modules,
    	author = "Gottschalg, R. and del Cueto, J. and Betts, T. R. and Williams, S. R. and Infield, D. G.",
    	title = "Investigating the seasonal performance of amorphous silicon single- and multi-junction modules",
    	series = "Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Vols a-C",
    	note = "Times Cited: 2 Betts, Thomas/F-9010-2010; Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion May 11-18, 2003 Osaka, JAPAN WCPEC-3 Org Comm; Inst Elect, Informat & Commun Engineers; Japan Soc Aeronaut & Space Sci; Chem Soc Japan; Japan Sect Int Solar Energy Soc; Electrochem Soc Japan; Japan Solar Energy Soc",
    	pages = "2078-2081",
    	year = 2003
    }
    
  23. R Gottschalg, D G Infield and M J Kearney. Experimental study of variations of the solar spectrum of relevance to thin film solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 79(4):527-537, 2003.
    BibTeX

    @article{Experimental study of variations of the solar spectrum of relevance to thin film solar cells,
    	author = "Gottschalg, R. and Infield, D. G. and Kearney, M. J.",
    	title = "Experimental study of variations of the solar spectrum of relevance to thin film solar cells",
    	journal = "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells",
    	volume = 79,
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "527-537",
    	note = "Times Cited: 26 Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 26",
    	year = 2003
    }
    
  24. R Gottschalg, C N Jardine, R Ruther, T R Betts, G J Conibeer, J Close, D G Infield, M K Kearney, K H Lam, K Lane, H Pang, R Tscharner and Ieee Ieee. Performance of amorphous silicon double junction photovoltaic systems in different climatic zones. Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2002 series, 2002.
    BibTeX

    @book{Performance of amorphous silicon double junction photovoltaic systems in different climatic zones,
    	author = "Gottschalg, R. and Jardine, C. N. and Ruther, R. and Betts, T. R. and Conibeer, G. J. and Close, J. and Infield, D. G. and Kearney, M. K. and Lam, K. H. and Lane, K. and Pang, H. and Tscharner, R. and Ieee, Ieee",
    	title = "Performance of amorphous silicon double junction photovoltaic systems in different climatic zones",
    	series = "Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2002",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Betts, Thomas/F-9010-2010; Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference May 19-24, 2002 New orleans, la IEEE Electron Devices Soc",
    	pages = "1699-1702",
    	year = 2002
    }
    
  25. R Gottschalg, M Rommel, D G Infield and M J Kearney. The influence of the measurement environment on the accuracy of the extraction of the physical parameters of solar cells. Measurement Science & Technology 10(9):796-804, 1999.
    BibTeX

    @article{The influence of the measurement environment on the accuracy of the extraction of the physical parameters of solar cells,
    	author = "Gottschalg, R. and Rommel, M. and Infield, D. G. and Kearney, M. J.",
    	title = "The influence of the measurement environment on the accuracy of the extraction of the physical parameters of solar cells",
    	journal = "Measurement Science & Technology",
    	volume = 10,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "796-804",
    	note = "Times Cited: 7 Rommel, Mathias/E-9202-2010; Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 7",
    	year = 1999
    }
    
  26. M S Gul, T Muneer and H D Kambezidis. Models for obtaining solar radiation from other meteorological data. Solar Energy 64(1-3):99-108, 1998.
    BibTeX

    @article{Models for obtaining solar radiation from other meteorological data,
    	author = "Gul, M. S. and Muneer, T. and Kambezidis, H. D.",
    	title = "Models for obtaining solar radiation from other meteorological data",
    	journal = "Solar Energy",
    	volume = 64,
    	number = "1-3",
    	pages = "99-108",
    	note = "Times Cited: 25 1 Solar World Congress of the International-Solar-Energy-Society Aug 24-29, 1997 Taejon, south korea Int Solar Energy Soc 27",
    	year = 1998
    }
    
  27. S Halliday, C Beggs and T Muneer. Is solar air conditioning feasible?. Building Research and Information 27(3):149-164, 1999.
    BibTeX

    @article{Is solar air conditioning feasible?,
    	author = "Halliday, S. and Beggs, C. and Muneer, T.",
    	title = "Is solar air conditioning feasible?",
    	journal = "Building Research and Information",
    	volume = 27,
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "149-164",
    	note = "Times Cited: 1 1",
    	year = 1999
    }
    
  28. T C Lim, B W Williams, S J Finney, H B Zhang and C Croser. Energy recovery snubber circuit for a dc-dc push-pull converter. Iet Power Electronics 5(6):863-872, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Energy recovery snubber circuit for a dc-dc push-pull converter,
    	author = "Lim, T. C. and Williams, B. W. and Finney, S. J. and Zhang, H. B. and Croser, C.",
    	title = "Energy recovery snubber circuit for a dc-dc push-pull converter",
    	journal = "Iet Power Electronics",
    	volume = 5,
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "863-872",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  29. Matthew Little, Murray Thomson and David Infield. Electrical integration of renewable energy into stand-alone power supplies incorporating hydrogen storage. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32(10-11):1582-1588, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Electrical integration of renewable energy into stand-alone power supplies incorporating hydrogen storage,
    	author = "Little, Matthew and Thomson, Murray and Infield, David",
    	title = "Electrical integration of renewable energy into stand-alone power supplies incorporating hydrogen storage",
    	journal = "International Journal of Hydrogen Energy",
    	volume = 32,
    	number = "10-11",
    	pages = "1582-1588",
    	note = "Times Cited: 41 2nd European Hydrogen Energy Conference Nov 22-25, 2005 Zaragoza, SPAIN 41",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  30. M Little, M Thomson, D Infield and England Univ West. Power converters for use in stand-alone renewable energy systems incorporating hydrogen storage. UPEC 2004: 39th International Universitities Power Engineering Conference, Vols 1-3, Conference Proceedings series, 2005.
    BibTeX

    @book{Power converters for use in stand-alone renewable energy systems incorporating hydrogen storage,
    	author = "Little, M. and Thomson, M. and Infield, D. and Univ West, England",
    	title = "Power converters for use in stand-alone renewable energy systems incorporating hydrogen storage",
    	series = "UPEC 2004: 39th International Universitities Power Engineering Conference, Vols 1-3, Conference Proceedings",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 39th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC 2004) Sep 06-08, 2004 Univ West England, Bristol, ENGLAND Power Syst & Elect Res Grp; IEEE Comp Soc; IEE; Int Councik Large Elect Syst; IEEE Reg 8, Power Engn Soc; Natl Grid Transco; EDF; WUHAN HI-TECH Elect Engn Co China",
    	pages = "644-648",
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  31. G Lopez, T Muneer and R Claywell. Assessment of four shadow band correction models using beam normal irradiance data from the United Kingdom and Israel. Energy Conversion and Management 45(13-14):1963-1979, 2004.
    BibTeX

    @article{Assessment of four shadow band correction models using beam normal irradiance data from the United Kingdom and Israel,
    	author = "Lopez, G. and Muneer, T. and Claywell, R.",
    	title = "Assessment of four shadow band correction models using beam normal irradiance data from the United Kingdom and Israel",
    	journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
    	volume = 45,
    	number = "13-14",
    	pages = "1963-1979",
    	note = "Times Cited: 9 9",
    	year = 2004
    }
    
  32. Liam J Maclsaac and Andrew R Knox. A new algorithm for obtaining the operating point of photovoltaic systems. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part a-Journal of Power and Energy 226(A6):794-803, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{A new algorithm for obtaining the operating point of photovoltaic systems,
    	author = "Maclsaac, Liam J. and Knox, Andrew R.",
    	title = "A new algorithm for obtaining the operating point of photovoltaic systems",
    	journal = "Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part a-Journal of Power and Energy",
    	volume = 226,
    	number = "A6",
    	pages = "794-803",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  33. Saima Munawwar and Tariq Muneer. Statistical approach to the proposition and validation of daily diffuse irradiation models. Applied Energy 84(4):455-475, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Statistical approach to the proposition and validation of daily diffuse irradiation models,
    	author = "Munawwar, Saima and Muneer, Tariq",
    	title = "Statistical approach to the proposition and validation of daily diffuse irradiation models",
    	journal = "Applied Energy",
    	volume = 84,
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "455-475",
    	note = "Times Cited: 11 11",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  34. T Muneer, W E Alnaser and F Fairooz. The insolation on vertical surface having different directions in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Desalination 209(1-3):269-274, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{The insolation on vertical surface having different directions in the Kingdom of Bahrain,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Alnaser, W. E. and Fairooz, F.",
    	title = "The insolation on vertical surface having different directions in the Kingdom of Bahrain",
    	journal = "Desalination",
    	volume = 209,
    	number = "1-3",
    	pages = "269-274",
    	note = "Times Cited: 6 9th Arab International Conference on Solar Energy (AICSE-9) Nov 05-07, 2006 Bahrain 6",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  35. T Muneer and M Asif. Prospects for secure and sustainable electricity supply for Pakistan. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(4):654-671, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Prospects for secure and sustainable electricity supply for Pakistan,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Asif, M.",
    	title = "Prospects for secure and sustainable electricity supply for Pakistan",
    	journal = "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews",
    	volume = 11,
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "654-671",
    	note = "Times Cited: 16 18",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  36. T Muneer, M Asif, Z Cimecioglu and H K Ozturk. Prospects for solar water heating within Turkish textile industry. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 12(3):807-823, 2008.
    BibTeX

    @article{Prospects for solar water heating within Turkish textile industry,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Asif, M. and Cimecioglu, Z. and Ozturk, H. K.",
    	title = "Prospects for solar water heating within Turkish textile industry",
    	journal = "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews",
    	volume = 12,
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "807-823",
    	note = "Times Cited: 5 5",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  37. T Muneer, M Asif and J Kubie. Generation and transmission prospects for solar electricity: UK and global markets. Energy Conversion and Management 44(1):35-52, 2003.
    BibTeX

    @article{Generation and transmission prospects for solar electricity: UK and global markets,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Asif, M. and Kubie, J.",
    	title = "Generation and transmission prospects for solar electricity: UK and global markets",
    	journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
    	volume = 44,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "35-52",
    	note = "Times Cited: 8 8",
    	year = 2003
    }
    
  38. T Muneer, M Asif and S Munawwar. Sustainable production of solar electricity with particular reference to the Indian economy. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 9(5):444-473, 2005.
    BibTeX

    @article{Sustainable production of solar electricity with particular reference to the Indian economy,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Asif, M. and Munawwar, S.",
    	title = "Sustainable production of solar electricity with particular reference to the Indian economy",
    	journal = "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews",
    	volume = 9,
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "444-473",
    	note = "Times Cited: 37 37",
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  39. Dedicated to Measurement and Modelling of Solar Radiation and Daylight-Challenges for the 21st Century - Edinburgh, UK - 15-16 September 2003 - Editorial introduction. Energy 30(9):1499-1500, 2005.
    BibTeX

    @article{Dedicated to Measurement and Modelling of Solar Radiation and Daylight-Challenges for the 21st Century - Edinburgh,
    	uk - 15-16 september 2003 - editorial introduction, author = "Muneer, T. and Grassie, T. and Munawwar, S.",
    	title = "Dedicated to Measurement and Modelling of Solar Radiation and Daylight-Challenges for the 21st Century - Edinburgh, UK - 15-16 September 2003 - Editorial introduction",
    	journal = "Energy",
    	volume = 30,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "1499-1500",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  40. T Muneer and M S Gul. Evaluation of sunshine and cloud cover based models for generating solar radiation data. Energy Conversion and Management 41(5):461-482, 2000.
    BibTeX

    @article{Evaluation of sunshine and cloud cover based models for generating solar radiation data,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Gul, M. S.",
    	title = "Evaluation of sunshine and cloud cover based models for generating solar radiation data",
    	journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
    	volume = 41,
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "461-482",
    	note = "Times Cited: 21 23",
    	year = 2000
    }
    
  41. T Muneer, M S Gul and J Kubie. Models for estimating solar radiation and illuminance from meteorological parameters. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme 122(3):146-153, 2000.
    BibTeX

    @article{Models for estimating solar radiation and illuminance from meteorological parameters,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Gul, M. S. and Kubie, J.",
    	title = "Models for estimating solar radiation and illuminance from meteorological parameters",
    	journal = "Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme",
    	volume = 122,
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "146-153",
    	note = "Times Cited: 20 20",
    	year = 2000
    }
    
  42. T Muneer and D Kinghorn. Solar irradiance & daylight illuminance data for the United Kingdom and Japan. Renewable Energy 15(1-4):318-324, 1998.
    BibTeX

    @article{Solar irradiance & daylight illuminance data for the United Kingdom and Japan,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Kinghorn, D.",
    	title = "Solar irradiance & daylight illuminance data for the United Kingdom and Japan",
    	journal = "Renewable Energy",
    	volume = 15,
    	number = "1-4",
    	pages = "318-324",
    	note = "Times Cited: 5 6",
    	year = 1998
    }
    
  43. Solar PV electricity - prospects for inter-city, grid-based generation within UK. Institution of Mechanical Engineers Seminar series, volume 2000, pages 299-308, 2000.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{Solar PV electricity - prospects for inter-city,
    	grid-based generation within uk, author = "Muneer, T. and Kubie, J. and Gul, M. S. and Imeche, Imeche",
    	title = "Solar PV electricity - prospects for inter-city, grid-based generation within UK",
    	booktitle = "Power Generation by Renewables",
    	series = "Institution of Mechanical Engineers Seminar",
    	volume = 2000,
    	pages = "299-308",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Seminar on Power Generation by Renewables May 15-16, 2000 Imeche headquarter, london, england Inst Mechan Engineers, Energy Transfer Thermofluid Mechan Grp; Power Ind Div",
    	year = 2000
    }
    
  44. T Muneer, S Maubleu and A Asif. Prospects of solar water heating for textile industry in Pakistan. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 10(1):1-23, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Prospects of solar water heating for textile industry in Pakistan,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Maubleu, S. and Asif, A.",
    	title = "Prospects of solar water heating for textile industry in Pakistan",
    	journal = "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews",
    	volume = 10,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "1-23",
    	note = "Times Cited: 24 24",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  45. T Muneer and S Munawwar. Improved accuracy models for hourly diffuse solar radiation. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme 128(1):104-117, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Improved accuracy models for hourly diffuse solar radiation,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Munawwar, S.",
    	title = "Improved accuracy models for hourly diffuse solar radiation",
    	journal = "Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme",
    	volume = 128,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "104-117",
    	note = "Times Cited: 12 12",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  46. T Muneer and S Munawwar. Potential for improvement in estimation of solar diffuse irradiance. Energy Conversion and Management 47(1):68-86, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Potential for improvement in estimation of solar diffuse irradiance,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Munawwar, S.",
    	title = "Potential for improvement in estimation of solar diffuse irradiance",
    	journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
    	volume = 47,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "68-86",
    	note = "Times Cited: 4 4",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  47. T Muneer and S Younes. The all-sky meteorological radiation model: proposed improvements. Applied Energy 83(5):436-450, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{The all-sky meteorological radiation model: proposed improvements,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Younes, S.",
    	title = "The all-sky meteorological radiation model: proposed improvements",
    	journal = "Applied Energy",
    	volume = 83,
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "436-450",
    	note = "Times Cited: 6 6",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  48. T Muneer, S Younes and S Munawwar. Discourses on solar radiation modeling. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(4):551-602, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Discourses on solar radiation modeling,
    	author = "Muneer, T. and Younes, S. and Munawwar, S.",
    	title = "Discourses on solar radiation modeling",
    	journal = "Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews",
    	volume = 11,
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "551-602",
    	note = "Times Cited: 29 30",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  49. N Odeh, T Grassie, D Henderson and T Muneer. Modelling of flow rate in a photovoltaic-driven roof slate-based solar ventilation air preheating system. Energy Conversion and Management 47(7-8):909-925, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Modelling of flow rate in a photovoltaic-driven roof slate-based solar ventilation air preheating system,
    	author = "Odeh, N. and Grassie, T. and Henderson, D. and Muneer, T.",
    	title = "Modelling of flow rate in a photovoltaic-driven roof slate-based solar ventilation air preheating system",
    	journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
    	volume = 47,
    	number = "7-8",
    	pages = "909-925",
    	note = "Times Cited: 8 8",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  50. S A Omer and D G Infield. Design optimization of thermoelectric devices for solar power generation. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 53(1-2):67-82, 1998.
    BibTeX

    @article{Design optimization of thermoelectric devices for solar power generation,
    	author = "Omer, S. A. and Infield, D. G.",
    	title = "Design optimization of thermoelectric devices for solar power generation",
    	journal = "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells",
    	volume = 53,
    	number = "1-2",
    	pages = "67-82",
    	note = "Times Cited: 51 56",
    	year = 1998
    }
    
  51. S A Omer and D G Infield. Design and thermal analysis of a two stage solar concentrator for combined heat and thermoelectric power generation. Energy Conversion and Management 41(7):737-756, 2000.
    BibTeX

    @article{Design and thermal analysis of a two stage solar concentrator for combined heat and thermoelectric power generation,
    	author = "Omer, S. A. and Infield, D. G.",
    	title = "Design and thermal analysis of a two stage solar concentrator for combined heat and thermoelectric power generation",
    	journal = "Energy Conversion and Management",
    	volume = 41,
    	number = 7,
    	pages = "737-756",
    	note = "Times Cited: 20 21",
    	year = 2000
    }
    
  52. B S Richards and G J Conibeer. Comparison of hydrogen storage technologies for solar-powered stand-alone power supplies: A photovoltaic system sizing approach. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32(14):2712-2718, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Comparison of hydrogen storage technologies for solar-powered stand-alone power supplies: A photovoltaic system sizing approach,
    	author = "Richards, B. S. and Conibeer, G. J.",
    	title = "Comparison of hydrogen storage technologies for solar-powered stand-alone power supplies: A photovoltaic system sizing approach",
    	journal = "International Journal of Hydrogen Energy",
    	volume = 32,
    	number = 14,
    	pages = "2712-2718",
    	note = "Times Cited: 15 Si International Conference on Materials for Hydrogen Energy Aug 27, 2004 Univ New S Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA 15",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  53. F Riddoch and J I B Wilson. THE APPLICATION OF SOLAR-ENERGY IN ARID ZONES. Journal of Arid Environments 3(1):1-8, 1980.
    BibTeX

    @article{THE APPLICATION OF SOLAR-ENERGY IN ARID ZONES,
    	author = "Riddoch, F. and Wilson, J. I. B.",
    	title = "THE APPLICATION OF SOLAR-ENERGY IN ARID ZONES",
    	journal = "Journal of Arid Environments",
    	volume = 3,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "1-8",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 1980
    }
    
  54. D Ryan and S A M Burek. Experimental study of the influence of collector height on the steady state performance of a passive solar air heater. Solar Energy 84(9):1676-1684, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Experimental study of the influence of collector height on the steady state performance of a passive solar air heater,
    	author = "Ryan, D. and Burek, S. A. M.",
    	title = "Experimental study of the influence of collector height on the steady state performance of a passive solar air heater",
    	journal = "Solar Energy",
    	volume = 84,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "1676-1684",
    	note = "Times Cited: 5 5",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  55. M Sabry, R Gottschalg, T R Betts, M A M Shaltout, A F Hassan, M M El-Nicklawy, D G Infield and Ieee Ieee. Optical filtering of solar radiation to increase performance of concentrator systems. Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2002 series, 2002.
    BibTeX

    @book{Optical filtering of solar radiation to increase performance of concentrator systems,
    	author = "Sabry, M. and Gottschalg, R. and Betts, T. R. and Shaltout, M. A. M. and Hassan, A. F. and El-Nicklawy, M. M. and Infield, D. G. and Ieee, Ieee",
    	title = "Optical filtering of solar radiation to increase performance of concentrator systems",
    	series = "Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2002",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Betts, Thomas/F-9010-2010; Gottschalg, Ralph/C-3654-2013 Gottschalg, Ralph/0000-0002-0066-0899 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference May 19-24, 2002 New orleans, la IEEE Electron Devices Soc",
    	pages = "1588-1591",
    	year = 2002
    }
    
  56. Y Tham, T Muneer and B Davison. Estimation of hourly averaged solar irradiation: evaluation of models. Building Services Engineering Research & Technology 31(1):9-25, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Estimation of hourly averaged solar irradiation: evaluation of models,
    	author = "Tham, Y. and Muneer, T. and Davison, B.",
    	title = "Estimation of hourly averaged solar irradiation: evaluation of models",
    	journal = "Building Services Engineering Research & Technology",
    	volume = 31,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "9-25",
    	note = "Times Cited: 2 2",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  57. Fan Wang, Alvaro Manzanares-Bennett, Jan Tucker, Susan Roaf and Nicholas Heath. A feasibility study on solar-wall systems for domestic heating - An affordable solution for fuel poverty. Solar Energy 86(9):2405-2415, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{A feasibility study on solar-wall systems for domestic heating - An affordable solution for fuel poverty,
    	author = "Wang, Fan and Manzanares-Bennett, Alvaro and Tucker, Jan and Roaf, Susan and Heath, Nicholas",
    	title = "A feasibility study on solar-wall systems for domestic heating - An affordable solution for fuel poverty",
    	journal = "Solar Energy",
    	volume = 86,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "2405-2415",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  58. Michael J Wilson and Manosh C Paul. Effect of mounting geometry on convection occurring under a photovoltaic panel and the corresponding efficiency using CFD. Solar Energy 85(10):2540-2550, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Effect of mounting geometry on convection occurring under a photovoltaic panel and the corresponding efficiency using CFD,
    	author = "Wilson, Michael J. and Paul, Manosh C.",
    	title = "Effect of mounting geometry on convection occurring under a photovoltaic panel and the corresponding efficiency using CFD",
    	journal = "Solar Energy",
    	volume = 85,
    	number = 10,
    	pages = "2540-2550",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  59. S Younes, R Claywell and T Muneer. Quality control of solar radiation data: Present status and proposed new approaches. Energy 30(9):1533-1549, 2005.
    BibTeX

    @article{Quality control of solar radiation data: Present status and proposed new approaches,
    	author = "Younes, S. and Claywell, R. and Muneer, T.",
    	title = "Quality control of solar radiation data: Present status and proposed new approaches",
    	journal = "Energy",
    	volume = 30,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "1533-1549",
    	note = "Times Cited: 18 1st Internationa Conference on Measurement and Modelling of Solar Radiation and Daylight Sep 15-16, 2003 Edinburgh, SCOTLAND 18",
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  60. S Younes and T Muneer. Improvements in solar radiation models based on cloud data. Building Services Engineering Research & Technology 27(1):41-54, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Improvements in solar radiation models based on cloud data,
    	author = "Younes, S. and Muneer, T.",
    	title = "Improvements in solar radiation models based on cloud data",
    	journal = "Building Services Engineering Research & Technology",
    	volume = 27,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "41-54",
    	note = "Times Cited: 8 9",
    	year = 2006
    }