Intermediate Band Solar Cells

What are Intermediate Band Solar Cells?

Intermediate band solar cells are formed through the addition of a narrow band of states in the middle of the bandgap of a photovoltaic material. The intermediate band of states is often achieved through the addition of quantum dots. The additional band allows for the absorption of low energy photons that would otherwise be transmitted through the photovoltaic material. Theoretical calculations have shown that efficiencies of 63% for intermediate band solar cells can be achieved under concentrated sunlight, which is a significant improvement on the corresponding maximum single junction efficiency of 41%.  

Quantum dots are “nanoparticles” of semiconductor material, usually in the range of 2-10 nm in diameter. Due to their small size, they exhibit unique optical and electronic properties that are different to their corresponding bulk material. These include the emission of photons of wavelengths that are dependant on the size of the quantum dot. Precise control of the size of the quantum dots allows for control over the wavelength at which they emit. Material combinations under current research include the use of InAs quantum dots, within GaAs solar cells. Efficiencies of Quantum dot solar cells are now greater than 18%. 

Highly mismatched alloys have also been shown to achieve the required intermediate band. An advantage of this type of material over quantum dots is that higher densities of states in the intermediate band can be achieved.   

 

What are the challenges for Intermediate Band Solar Cells?

Quantum dots are very small and so do not absorb much light. Therefore it is necessary to have several layers of quantum dots. Each subsequent layer results in additional strain, causing damage to the photovoltaic material and reducing performance. Therefore the number of quantum dot layers is limited. 

The addition of intermediate states introduces mechanisms for non-radiative recombination. This could severely hinder the efficiency of an intermediate band solar cell, cancelling out the benefits of the intermediate band states. Research into the mechanisms and solutions for this problem are required before intermediate band solar cells can reach their full potential. 

 

How are these challenges being addressed by SISER researchers?

The University of Glasgow is carrying out research into quantum dot intermediate band solar cells. The specific intermediate band materials under investigation are self-assembled InAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy and embedded in (Al,Ga)As. Furthermore, single junction (Al,Ga)As PV cells with one sun efficiencies in excess of 20% are being developed to benchmark the overall technology.   

 

SISER researchers with interest in this area are: Prof. Colin Stanley.

Full details of all SISER researchers are found on the SISER People Page

 

Publications

  1. E Antolin, A Marti, C D Farmer, P G Linares, E Hernandez, A M Sanchez, T Ben, S I Molina, C R Stanley and A Luque. Reducing carrier escape in the InAs/GaAs quantum dot intermediate band solar cell. Journal of Applied Physics 108(6), 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Reducing carrier escape in the InAs/GaAs quantum dot intermediate band solar cell,
    	author = "Antolin, E. and Marti, A. and Farmer, C. D. and Linares, P. G. and Hernandez, E. and Sanchez, A. M. and Ben, T. and Molina, S. I. and Stanley, C. R. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "Reducing carrier escape in the InAs/GaAs quantum dot intermediate band solar cell",
    	journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
    	volume = 108,
    	number = 6,
    	note = "Times Cited: 22 Molina, Sergio/A-8241-2008; Sanchez, Ana/F-3153-2010 22",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  2. E Antolin, A Marti, P G Linares, I Ramiro, E Hernandez, C D Farmer, C R Stanley, A Luque and Ieee. ADVANCES IN QUANTUM DOT INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELLS. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference series, pages 65-70, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{ADVANCES IN QUANTUM DOT INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELLS,
    	author = "Antolin, E. and Marti, A. and Linares, P. G. and Ramiro, I. and Hernandez, E. and Farmer, C. D. and Stanley, C. R. and Luque, A. and Ieee",
    	title = "ADVANCES IN QUANTUM DOT INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELLS",
    	booktitle = "35th Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference",
    	series = "IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference",
    	pages = "65-70",
    	note = "Times Cited: 3 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Jun 20-25, 2010 Honolulu, HI IEEE Elect Devices Soc; IEEE Photon Soc; IEEE Power & Energy Soc; Solar Energy Industries Assoc",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  3. E Antolin, A Marti, C R Stanley, C D Fanner, E Canovas, N Lopez, P G Linares and A Luque. Low temperature characterization of the photocurrent produced by two-photon transitions in a quantum dot intermediate band solar cell. Thin Solid Films 516(20):6919-6923, 2008.
    BibTeX

    @article{Low temperature characterization of the photocurrent produced by two-photon transitions in a quantum dot intermediate band solar cell,
    	author = "Antolin, E. and Marti, A. and Stanley, C. R. and Fanner, C. D. and Canovas, E. and Lopez, N. and Linares, P. G. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "Low temperature characterization of the photocurrent produced by two-photon transitions in a quantum dot intermediate band solar cell",
    	journal = "Thin Solid Films",
    	volume = 516,
    	number = 20,
    	pages = "6919-6923",
    	note = "Times Cited: 17 Symposium on Advanced Materials and Concepts for Photovoltaics held at the EMRS 2007Conferenc Jun, 2007 Strasbourg, FRANCE Euorpean Mat Res Soc 17",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  4. E Canovas, A Marti, N Lopez, E Antolin, P G Linares, C D Farmer, C R Stanley and A Luque. Application of the photoreflectance technique to the characterization of quantum dot intermediate band materials for solar cells. Thin Solid Films 516(20):6943-6947, 2008.
    BibTeX

    @article{Application of the photoreflectance technique to the characterization of quantum dot intermediate band materials for solar cells,
    	author = "Canovas, E. and Marti, A. and Lopez, N. and Antolin, E. and Linares, P. G. and Farmer, C. D. and Stanley, C. R. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "Application of the photoreflectance technique to the characterization of quantum dot intermediate band materials for solar cells",
    	journal = "Thin Solid Films",
    	volume = 516,
    	number = 20,
    	pages = "6943-6947",
    	note = "Times Cited: 22 Symposium on Advanced Materials and Concepts for Photovoltaics held at the EMRS 2007 Conference Jun, 2007 Strasbourg, FRANCE European Mat Res Soc 23",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  5. G Beaucarne, G Conibeer, E Mellikov, R Schropp and M Topic (eds.). Lateral absorption measurements of InAs/GaAs quantum dots stacks: potential as intermediate band material for high efficiency solar cells. Energy Procedia series, volume 2, pages 27-34, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{Lateral absorption measurements of InAs/GaAs quantum dots stacks: potential as intermediate band material for high efficiency solar cells,
    	author = "Canovas, E. and Marti, A. and Luque, A. and Farmer, C. D. and Stanley, C. R. and Sanchez, A. M. and Ben, T. and Molina, S. I.",
    	title = "Lateral absorption measurements of InAs/GaAs quantum dots stacks: potential as intermediate band material for high efficiency solar cells",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of Inorganic and Nanostructured Photovoltaics",
    	editor = "Beaucarne, G. and Conibeer, G. and Mellikov, E. and Schropp, R. and Topic, M.",
    	series = "Energy Procedia",
    	volume = 2,
    	pages = "27-34",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Molina, Sergio/A-8241-2008 Symposium on Inorganic and Nanostructured Photovoltaics held at the E-MRS 2009 Spring Meeting Jun 07-12, 2009 Strasbourg, FRANCE E-mrs",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  6. D Fuertes Marron, E Canovas, I Artacho, C R Stanley, M Steer, T Kaizu, Y Shoji, N Ahsan, Y Okada, E Barrigon, I Rey-Stolle, C Algora, A Marti and A Luque. Application of photoreflectance to advanced multilayer structures for photovoltaics. Materials Science and Engineering B-Advanced Functional Solid-State Materials 178(9):599-608, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Application of photoreflectance to advanced multilayer structures for photovoltaics,
    	author = "Fuertes Marron, D. and Canovas, E. and Artacho, I. and Stanley, C. R. and Steer, M. and Kaizu, T. and Shoji, Y. and Ahsan, N. and Okada, Y. and Barrigon, E. and Rey-Stolle, I. and Algora, C. and Marti, A. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "Application of photoreflectance to advanced multilayer structures for photovoltaics",
    	journal = "Materials Science and Engineering B-Advanced Functional Solid-State Materials",
    	volume = 178,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "599-608",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Si 0",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  7. G Beaucarne, G Conibeer, E Mellikov, R Schropp and M Topic (eds.). In(x)(Ga(y)Al(1-y))(1-x)As quaternary alloys for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells. Energy Procedia series, volume 2, pages 133-141, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{In(x)(Ga(y)Al(1-y))(1-x)As quaternary alloys for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells,
    	author = "Linares, P. G. and Farmer, C. D. and Antolin, E. and Chakrabarti, S. and Sanchez, A. M. and Ben, T. and Molina, S. I. and Stanley, C. R. and Marti, A. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "In(x)(Ga(y)Al(1-y))(1-x)As quaternary alloys for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of Inorganic and Nanostructured Photovoltaics",
    	editor = "Beaucarne, G. and Conibeer, G. and Mellikov, E. and Schropp, R. and Topic, M.",
    	series = "Energy Procedia",
    	volume = 2,
    	pages = "133-141",
    	note = "Times Cited: 4 Molina, Sergio/A-8241-2008 Symposium on Inorganic and Nanostructured Photovoltaics held at the E-MRS 2009 Spring Meeting Jun 07-12, 2009 Strasbourg, FRANCE E-mrs",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  8. Pablo G Linares, Antonio Marti, Elisa Antolin, Corrie D Farmer, Inigo Ramiro, Colin R Stanley and Antonio Luque. Voltage recovery in intermediate band solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 98:240-244, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Voltage recovery in intermediate band solar cells,
    	author = "Linares, Pablo G. and Marti, Antonio and Antolin, Elisa and Farmer, Corrie D. and Ramiro, Inigo and Stanley, Colin R. and Luque, Antonio",
    	title = "Voltage recovery in intermediate band solar cells",
    	journal = "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells",
    	volume = 98,
    	pages = "240-244",
    	note = "Times Cited: 8 8",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  9. Pablo G Linares, Antonio Marti, Elisa Antolin, Inigo Ramiro, Esther Lopez, Corrie D Farmer, Colin R Stanley and Antonio Luque. Low-Temperature Concentrated Light Characterization Applied to Intermediate Band Solar Cells. Ieee Journal of Photovoltaics 3(2):753-761, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Low-Temperature Concentrated Light Characterization Applied to Intermediate Band Solar Cells,
    	author = "Linares, Pablo G. and Marti, Antonio and Antolin, Elisa and Ramiro, Inigo and Lopez, Esther and Farmer, Corrie D. and Stanley, Colin R. and Luque, Antonio",
    	title = "Low-Temperature Concentrated Light Characterization Applied to Intermediate Band Solar Cells",
    	journal = "Ieee Journal of Photovoltaics",
    	volume = 3,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "753-761",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  10. P G Linares, A Marti, E Antolin, I Ramiro, E Lopez, E Hernandez, D Fuertes Marron, I Artacho, I Tobias, P Gerard, C Chaix, R P Campion, C T Foxon, C R Stanley, S I Molina and A Luque. Extreme voltage recovery in GaAs:Ti intermediate band solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 108:175-179, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Extreme voltage recovery in GaAs:Ti intermediate band solar cells,
    	author = "Linares, P. G. and Marti, A. and Antolin, E. and Ramiro, I. and Lopez, E. and Hernandez, E. and Fuertes Marron, D. and Artacho, I. and Tobias, I. and Gerard, P. and Chaix, C. and Campion, R. P. and Foxon, C. T. and Stanley, C. R. and Molina, S. I. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "Extreme voltage recovery in GaAs:Ti intermediate band solar cells",
    	journal = "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells",
    	volume = 108,
    	pages = "175-179",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Microelectronica, IMM/D-5173-2013 0",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  11. N Lopez, A Marti, A Luque, C Stanley, C Farmer and P Diaz. Experimental analysis of the operation of quantum dot intermediate band solar cells. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme 129(3):319-322, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Experimental analysis of the operation of quantum dot intermediate band solar cells,
    	author = "Lopez, N. and Marti, A. and Luque, A. and Stanley, C. and Farmer, C. and Diaz, P.",
    	title = "Experimental analysis of the operation of quantum dot intermediate band solar cells",
    	journal = "Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme",
    	volume = 129,
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "319-322",
    	note = "Times Cited: 16 16",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  12. Antonio Luque, Pablo G Linares, Elisa Antolin, Enrique Canovas, Corrie D Farmer, Colin R Stanley and Antonio Marti. Multiple levels in intermediate band solar cells. Applied Physics Letters 96(1), 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Multiple levels in intermediate band solar cells,
    	author = "Luque, Antonio and Linares, Pablo G. and Antolin, Elisa and Canovas, Enrique and Farmer, Corrie D. and Stanley, Colin R. and Marti, Antonio",
    	title = "Multiple levels in intermediate band solar cells",
    	journal = "Applied Physics Letters",
    	volume = 96,
    	number = 1,
    	note = "Times Cited: 12 13",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  13. A Luque, P G Linares, E Antolin, I Ramiro, C D Farmer, E Hernandez, I Tobias, C R Stanley and A Marti. Understanding the operation of quantum dot intermediate band solar cells. Journal of Applied Physics 111(4), 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Understanding the operation of quantum dot intermediate band solar cells,
    	author = "Luque, A. and Linares, P. G. and Antolin, E. and Ramiro, I. and Farmer, C. D. and Hernandez, E. and Tobias, I. and Stanley, C. R. and Marti, A.",
    	title = "Understanding the operation of quantum dot intermediate band solar cells",
    	journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
    	volume = 111,
    	number = 4,
    	note = "Times Cited: 5 Tobias, Ignacio/B-6292-2013 5",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  14. A Luque, A Marti, N Lopez, E Antolin, E Canovas, C Stanley, C Farmer, L J Caballero, L Cuadra and J L Balenzategui. Experimental analysis of the quasi-Fermi level split in quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells. Applied Physics Letters 87(8), 2005.
    BibTeX

    @article{Experimental analysis of the quasi-Fermi level split in quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells,
    	author = "Luque, A. and Marti, A. and Lopez, N. and Antolin, E. and Canovas, E. and Stanley, C. and Farmer, C. and Caballero, L. J. and Cuadra, L. and Balenzategui, J. L.",
    	title = "Experimental analysis of the quasi-Fermi level split in quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells",
    	journal = "Applied Physics Letters",
    	volume = 87,
    	number = 8,
    	note = "Times Cited: 77 78",
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  15. A Luque, A Marti, N Lopez, E Antolin, E Canovas, C Stanley, C Farmer and P Diaz. Operation of the intermediate band solar cell under nonideal space charge region conditions and half filling of the intermediate band. Journal of Applied Physics 99(9), 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Operation of the intermediate band solar cell under nonideal space charge region conditions and half filling of the intermediate band,
    	author = "Luque, A. and Marti, A. and Lopez, N. and Antolin, E. and Canovas, E. and Stanley, C. and Farmer, C. and Diaz, P.",
    	title = "Operation of the intermediate band solar cell under nonideal space charge region conditions and half filling of the intermediate band",
    	journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
    	volume = 99,
    	number = 9,
    	note = "Times Cited: 59 60",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  16. Antonio Luque, Antonio Marti and Colin Stanley. Understanding intermediate-band solar cells. Nature Photonics 6(3):146-152, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Understanding intermediate-band solar cells,
    	author = "Luque, Antonio and Marti, Antonio and Stanley, Colin",
    	title = "Understanding intermediate-band solar cells",
    	journal = "Nature Photonics",
    	volume = 6,
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "146-152",
    	note = "Times Cited: 34 34",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  17. General equivalent circuit for intermediate band devices: Potentials, currents and electroluminescence. Journal of Applied Physics 96(1):903-909, 2004.
    BibTeX

    @article{General equivalent circuit for intermediate band devices: Potentials,
    	currents and electroluminescence, author = "Luque, A. and Marti, A. and Stanley, C. and Lopez, N. and Cuadra, L. and Zhou, D. and Pearson, J. L. and McKee, A.",
    	title = "General equivalent circuit for intermediate band devices: Potentials, currents and electroluminescence",
    	journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
    	volume = 96,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "903-909",
    	note = "Times Cited: 87 89",
    	year = 2004
    }
    
  18. A Luque, A Marti, P Wahnon, L Cuadra, C Tablero, C Stanley, A McKee, D Zhou, R Konenkamp, R Bayon, A Belaidi, J Alonso, J Ruiz, J Fernandez, P Palacios, N Lopez and Ieee Ieee. Progress towards the practical implementation of the intermediate band solar cell. Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2002 series, 2002.
    BibTeX

    @book{Progress towards the practical implementation of the intermediate band solar cell,
    	author = "Luque, A. and Marti, A. and Wahnon, P. and Cuadra, L. and Tablero, C. and Stanley, C. and McKee, A. and Zhou, D. and Konenkamp, R. and Bayon, R. and Belaidi, A. and Alonso, J. and Ruiz, J. and Fernandez, J. and Palacios, P. and Lopez, N. and Ieee, Ieee",
    	title = "Progress towards the practical implementation of the intermediate band solar cell",
    	series = "Conference Record of the Twenty-Ninth Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference 2002",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference May 19-24, 2002 New orleans, la IEEE Electron Devices Soc",
    	pages = "1190-1193",
    	year = 2002
    }
    
  19. A Marti, E Antolin, E Canovas, N Lopez, P G Linares, A Luque, C R Stanley and C D Farmer. Elements of the design and analysis band solar of quantum-dot intermediate cells. Thin Solid Films 516(20):6716-6722, 2008.
    BibTeX

    @article{Elements of the design and analysis band solar of quantum-dot intermediate cells,
    	author = "Marti, A. and Antolin, E. and Canovas, E. and Lopez, N. and Linares, P. G. and Luque, A. and Stanley, C. R. and Farmer, C. D.",
    	title = "Elements of the design and analysis band solar of quantum-dot intermediate cells",
    	journal = "Thin Solid Films",
    	volume = 516,
    	number = 20,
    	pages = "6716-6722",
    	note = "Times Cited: 32 Symposium on Advanced Materials and Concepts for Photovoltaics held at the EMRS 2007 Conference Jun, 2007 Strasbourg, FRANCE European Mat Res Soc 32",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  20. A Marti, E Antolin, P G Linares, E Canovas, D Fuertes Marron, C Tablero, M Mendes, A Mellor, I Tobias, M Y Levy, E Hernandez, A Luque, C D Farmer, C R Stanley, R P Campion, J L Hall, S V Novikov, C T Foxon, R Scheer, B Marsen, H W Schock, M Picault, C Chaix and Ieee. IBPOWER: INTERMEDIATE BAND MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY AND REDUCED COST. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference series, pages 2153-2158, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{IBPOWER: INTERMEDIATE BAND MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY AND REDUCED COST,
    	author = "Marti, A. and Antolin, E. and Linares, P. G. and Canovas, E. and Fuertes Marron, D. and Tablero, C. and Mendes, M. and Mellor, A. and Tobias, I. and Levy, M. Y. and Hernandez, E. and Luque, A. and Farmer, C. D. and Stanley, C. R. and Campion, R. P. and Hall, J. L. and Novikov, S. V. and Foxon, C. T. and Scheer, R. and Marsen, B. and Schock, H. W. and Picault, M. and Chaix, C. and Ieee",
    	title = "IBPOWER: INTERMEDIATE BAND MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY AND REDUCED COST",
    	booktitle = "2009 34th Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Vols 1-3",
    	series = "IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference",
    	pages = "2153-2158",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Marsen, Bjorn/D-4764-2009; Tobias, Ignacio/B-6292-2013 Marsen, Bjorn/0000-0002-8304-0061; 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Jun 07-12, 2009 Philadelphia, PA IEEE Electron Devices Soc; IEEE Photon Soc",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  21. A Marti, E Antolin, C R Stanley, C D Farmer, N Lopez, P Diaz, E Canovas, P G Linares and A Luque. Production of photocurrent due to intermediate-to-conduction-band transitions: A demonstration of a key operating principle of the intermediate-band solar cell. Physical Review Letters 97(24), 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Production of photocurrent due to intermediate-to-conduction-band transitions: A demonstration of a key operating principle of the intermediate-band solar cell,
    	author = "Marti, A. and Antolin, E. and Stanley, C. R. and Farmer, C. D. and Lopez, N. and Diaz, P. and Canovas, E. and Linares, P. G. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "Production of photocurrent due to intermediate-to-conduction-band transitions: A demonstration of a key operating principle of the intermediate-band solar cell",
    	journal = "Physical Review Letters",
    	volume = 97,
    	number = 24,
    	note = "Times Cited: 156 160",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  22. A Marti, N Lopez, E Antolin, E Canovas, C Stanley, C Farmer, L Cuadra and A Luque. Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell. Thin Solid Films 511:638-644, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell,
    	author = "Marti, A. and Lopez, N. and Antolin, E. and Canovas, E. and Stanley, C. and Farmer, C. and Cuadra, L. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell",
    	journal = "Thin Solid Films",
    	volume = 511,
    	pages = "638-644",
    	note = "Times Cited: 79 Symposium on Thin Film and Nanostructured Materials for Photovoltaics held at the 2005 EMRS Meeting May 31-jun 03, 2005 Strasbourg, FRANCE Emrs 80",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  23. A Marti, C R Stanley and A Luque. Intermediate Band Solar Cells (IBSC) Using Nanotechnology. Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion series, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @book{Intermediate Band Solar Cells (IBSC) Using Nanotechnology,
    	author = "Marti, A. and Stanley, C. R. and Luque, A.",
    	title = "Intermediate Band Solar Cells (IBSC) Using Nanotechnology",
    	series = "Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion",
    	note = "Times Cited: 13",
    	pages = "539-566",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  24. G Conibeer, Y Li, J Poortmans, M Kondo, A Slaoui, M Tao and M Topic (eds.). Application of photoluminescence and electroluminescence techniques to the characterization of intermediate band solar cells. Energy Procedia series, volume 10, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{Application of photoluminescence and electroluminescence techniques to the characterization of intermediate band solar cells,
    	author = "Ramiro, I. and Antolin, E. and Linares, P. G. and Hernandez, E. and Marti, A. and Luque, A. and Farmer, C. D. and Stanley, C. R.",
    	title = "Application of photoluminescence and electroluminescence techniques to the characterization of intermediate band solar cells",
    	booktitle = "European Materials Research Society Conference Symposium: Advanced Inorganic Materials and Concepts for Photovoltaics",
    	editor = "Conibeer, G. and Li, Y. and Poortmans, J. and Kondo, M. and Slaoui, A. and Tao, M. and Topic, M.",
    	series = "Energy Procedia",
    	volume = 10,
    	note = "Times Cited: 1 Symposium R on Advanced Inorganic Materials and Concepts for Photovoltaics/Spring Meeting of the European-Materials-Research-Society (E-MRS) May 09-13, 2011 Nice, FRANCE European Mat Res Soc (E-MRS)",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  25. I Ramiro, E Antolin, M J Steer, P G Linares, E Hernandez, I Artacho, E Lopez, T Ben, J M Ripalda, S I Molina, F Briones, C R Stanley, A Marti, A Luque and Ieee. InAs/AlGaAs quantum dot intermediate band solar cells with enlarged sub-bandgaps. 2012 38th Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference series, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @book{InAs/AlGaAs quantum dot intermediate band solar cells with enlarged sub-bandgaps,
    	author = "Ramiro, I. and Antolin, E. and Steer, M. J. and Linares, P. G. and Hernandez, E. and Artacho, I. and Lopez, E. and Ben, T. and Ripalda, J. M. and Molina, S. I. and Briones, F. and Stanley, C. R. and Marti, A. and Luque, A. and Ieee",
    	title = "InAs/AlGaAs quantum dot intermediate band solar cells with enlarged sub-bandgaps",
    	series = "2012 38th Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Pvsc 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) Jun 03-08, 2012 Austin, TX IEEE; IEEE Electron Devides Soc (EDS); IEEE Photon Soc; IEEE Power & Energy Soc (PES); HelioVolt Corp; SunShot, US Dept Energy",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  26. C Stanley. Photovoltaic device useful for generating electrical power when illuminated by sunlight comprises an n-base layer and a p-emitter layer.
    BibTeX

    @misc{Photovoltaic device useful for generating electrical power when illuminated by sunlight comprises an n-base layer and a p-emitter layer,
    	author = "Stanley, C.",
    	title = "Photovoltaic device useful for generating electrical power when illuminated by sunlight comprises an n-base layer and a p-emitter layer",
    	publisher = "Univ Glasgow",
    	isbn = "WO2011042682-A2; WO2011042682-A3"
    }