Semiconductor Blend

 

Animation of OPV Mechanisms


Please click on the image tofind out how an organic potovoltaic solar cell works. Animation provided by www.thesolarspark.co.uk

Organic Photovoltaics (OPV)

What are Organic Photovoltaics?

Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) describes solar cells and devices that use organic molecules as the light absorbing material for electricity generation.  These molecules have conjugated double bonds which are capable of transporting electrons. Therefore they are known as organic semiconductors.

The general structure of an of an OPV device consists of a layer of organic semiconductor material sandwiched between two electrical contacts (electrodes), which are deposited on transparent substrates. A transparent  conducting oxide, such as Indium-tin-oxide (ITO), is used to allow light to pass through the electrode and enter the organic semiconductor layer.

In an OPV device a photon (light) is absorbed by the organic material and an “exciton” is produced. The exciton subsequently seperates into an electron and hole, which migrate to their respective opposite electrodes, therefore generating an electrical current.


What are the challenges for Organic Photovoltaics? 

The efficiency of OPV cells is less than that of silicon PV and other inorganic solar cells. Loss mechanisms include insufficient photon absorption, excitation recombination, carrier recombination and loss at the electrodes. Improving the lifetime and stability of OPV cells is also a major challange to overcome. The development of low cost roll to roll manufacturing processes is required for OPV to make an impact on the mainstream market. 

 

How are these challenges being addressed by SISER researchers?

Understanding the processes that contribute towards the operation of an organic solar cell is crucial for their development. Researchers at the University of St Andrews look to understand the key physical mechanisms that determine OPV performance.  State of the art photophysical measurements are combined with device fabrication and testing in order to follow key processes, including light absorption, energy relaxation, exciton diffusion and cell stability.  

Joint research between The Universities of St Andrews and Strathclyde is focused on developing and testing a wide range of novel charge transport molecules. Recent work has focused on star-shaped conjugated macromolecules, which have shown high charge transport mobility in multiple directions. The development of new materials for use in OPVs is required to improve the efficiencies so that this emerging solar cell technology can compete with their more establised inorganic counterparts. 

 

SISER researchers with interest in this area are: Prof. Graeme CookeProf. Ifor Samuel and Prof. Peter Skabara.

Full details of all SISER researchers are found on the SISER People Page

 

Publications

  1. Dimali Amarasinghe, Arvydas Ruseckas, Graham A Turnbull and Ifor D W Samuel. Organic Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers. Proceedings of the Ieee 97(9):1637-1650, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{Organic Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers,
    	author = "Amarasinghe, Dimali and Ruseckas, Arvydas and Turnbull, Graham A. and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Organic Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers",
    	journal = "Proceedings of the Ieee",
    	volume = 97,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "1637-1650",
    	note = "Times Cited: 14 Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 14",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  2. J Behrends, A Schnegg, K Lips, E A Thomsen, A K Pandey, I D W Samuel and D J Keeble. Bipolaron Formation in Organic Solar Cells Observed by Pulsed Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance. Physical Review Letters 105(17), 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Bipolaron Formation in Organic Solar Cells Observed by Pulsed Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance,
    	author = "Behrends, J. and Schnegg, A. and Lips, K. and Thomsen, E. A. and Pandey, A. K. and Samuel, I. D. W. and Keeble, D. J.",
    	title = "Bipolaron Formation in Organic Solar Cells Observed by Pulsed Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance",
    	journal = "Physical Review Letters",
    	volume = 105,
    	number = 17,
    	note = "Times Cited: 17 Pandey, Ajay/B-5562-2008; Behrends, Jan/A-6282-2012; Keeble, David /C-6633-2012 Pandey, Ajay/0000-0002-6599-745X; Keeble, David /0000-0002-5378-799X 17",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  3. Location, Location, Location - Strategic Positioning of 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Units within Trigonal Quaterfluorene-Truxene Star-Shaped Structures. Advanced Functional Materials 23(22):2792-2804, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Location,
    	location, location - strategic positioning of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole units within trigonal quaterfluorene-truxene star-shaped structures, author = "Belton, Colin R. and Kanibolotsky, Alexander L. and Kirkpatrick, James and Orofino, Clara and Elmasly, Saadeldin E. T. and Stavrinou, Paul N. and Skabara, Peter J. and Bradley, Donal D. C.",
    	title = "Location, Location, Location - Strategic Positioning of 2,1,3-Benzothiadiazole Units within Trigonal Quaterfluorene-Truxene Star-Shaped Structures",
    	journal = "Advanced Functional Materials",
    	volume = 23,
    	number = 22,
    	pages = "2792-2804",
    	note = "Times Cited: 1 1",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  4. R Berridge, P J Skabara, C Pozo-Gonzalo, A Kanibolotsky, J Lohr, J J W McDouall, E J L McInnes, J Wolowska, C Winder, N S Sariciftci, R W Harrington and W Clegg. Incorporation of fused tetrathiafulvalenes (TTFs) into polythiophene architectures: Varying the electroactive dominance of the TTF species in hybrid systems. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 110(7):3140-3152, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Incorporation of fused tetrathiafulvalenes (TTFs) into polythiophene architectures: Varying the electroactive dominance of the TTF species in hybrid systems,
    	author = "Berridge, R. and Skabara, P. J. and Pozo-Gonzalo, C. and Kanibolotsky, A. and Lohr, J. and McDouall, J. J. W. and McInnes, E. J. L. and Wolowska, J. and Winder, C. and Sariciftci, N. S. and Harrington, R. W. and Clegg, W.",
    	title = "Incorporation of fused tetrathiafulvalenes (TTFs) into polythiophene architectures: Varying the electroactive dominance of the TTF species in hybrid systems",
    	journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry B",
    	volume = 110,
    	number = 7,
    	pages = "3140-3152",
    	note = "Times Cited: 25 Harrington, Ross/B-8638-2009; Kanibolotsky, Alexander/C-9877-2009; Clegg, William/B-2491-2010; McDouall, Joseph/H-3567-2011 25",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  5. New highly-branched dendrimer useful in a semiconducting device e.g. photodiode, a solar cell, field effect transistor, solid state triode or a light emitting device.
    BibTeX

    @misc{New highly-branched dendrimer useful in a semiconducting device e.g. photodiode,
    	a solar cell, field effect transistor, solid state triode or a light emitting device, author = "Burn, P. L. and Samuel, I. D. W. and Cumpstey, N. and Billy, J.",
    	title = "New highly-branched dendrimer useful in a semiconducting device e.g. photodiode, a solar cell, field effect transistor, solid state triode or a light emitting device",
    	publisher = "Isis Innovation Ltd; Univ St Andrews; Burn P L; Samuel I D W; Cumpstey N",
    	isbn = "WO2006097717-A1; GB2439867-A; DE112006000604-T5; US2008211391-A1; JP2008538742-W; GB2439867-B; JP2013006838-A"
    }
    
  6. Diego Cortizo-Lacalle, Calvyn T Howells, Salvatore Gambino, Filipe Vilela, Zuzana Vobecka, Neil J Findlay, Anto R Inigo, Stuart A J Thomson, Peter J Skabara and Ifor D W Samuel. BODIPY-based conjugated polymers for broadband light sensing and harvesting applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(28):14119-14126, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{BODIPY-based conjugated polymers for broadband light sensing and harvesting applications,
    	author = "Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego and Howells, Calvyn T. and Gambino, Salvatore and Vilela, Filipe and Vobecka, Zuzana and Findlay, Neil J. and Inigo, Anto R. and Thomson, Stuart A. J. and Skabara, Peter J. and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "BODIPY-based conjugated polymers for broadband light sensing and harvesting applications",
    	journal = "Journal of Materials Chemistry",
    	volume = 22,
    	number = 28,
    	pages = "14119-14126",
    	note = "Times Cited: 3 Inigo, Anto Regis/G-2059-2012; Vilela, Filipe/C-5827-2009; Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego/C-6005-2013 3",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  7. Paul A Dalgarno, Christopher A Traina, Carlos J Penedo, Guillermo C Bazan and Ifor D W Samuel. Solution-Based Single Molecule Imaging of Surface-Immobilized Conjugated Polymers. Journal of the American Chemical Society 135(19):7187-7193, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Solution-Based Single Molecule Imaging of Surface-Immobilized Conjugated Polymers,
    	author = "Dalgarno, Paul A. and Traina, Christopher A. and Penedo, J. Carlos and Bazan, Guillermo C. and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Solution-Based Single Molecule Imaging of Surface-Immobilized Conjugated Polymers",
    	journal = "Journal of the American Chemical Society",
    	volume = 135,
    	number = 19,
    	pages = "7187-7193",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  8. Simon Dalgleish, John G Labram, Zhe Li, Jianpu Wang, Christopher R McNeill, Thomas D Anthopoulos, Neil C Greenham and Neil Robertson. Indole-substituted nickel dithiolene complexes in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(39):15422-15430, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Indole-substituted nickel dithiolene complexes in electronic and optoelectronic devices,
    	author = "Dalgleish, Simon and Labram, John G. and Li, Zhe and Wang, Jianpu and McNeill, Christopher R. and Anthopoulos, Thomas D. and Greenham, Neil C. and Robertson, Neil",
    	title = "Indole-substituted nickel dithiolene complexes in electronic and optoelectronic devices",
    	journal = "Journal of Materials Chemistry",
    	volume = 21,
    	number = 39,
    	pages = "15422-15430",
    	note = "Times Cited: 4 McNeill, Christopher/B-4530-2008 4",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  9. Electrochemical, Spectroelectrochemical, and Comparative Studies of Novel Organic Conjugated Monomers and Polymers Featuring the Redox-Active Unit Tetrathianaphthalene. Macromolecules 42(7):2570-2580, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{Electrochemical,
    	spectroelectrochemical, and comparative studies of novel organic conjugated monomers and polymers featuring the redox-active unit tetrathianaphthalene, author = "Forgie, John C. and Kanibolotsky, Alexander L. and Skabara, Peter J. and Coles, Simon J. and Hursthouse, Michael B. and Harrington, Ross W. and Clegg, William",
    	title = "Electrochemical, Spectroelectrochemical, and Comparative Studies of Novel Organic Conjugated Monomers and Polymers Featuring the Redox-Active Unit Tetrathianaphthalene",
    	journal = "Macromolecules",
    	volume = 42,
    	number = 7,
    	pages = "2570-2580",
    	note = "Times Cited: 9 Harrington, Ross/B-8638-2009; Forgie, John/C-6972-2009; Kanibolotsky, Alexander/C-9877-2009; Coles, Simon/A-1795-2009; Clegg, William/B-2491-2010; Hursthouse, Michael/B-9885-2011 Coles, Simon/0000-0001-8414-9272; Hursthouse, Michael/0000-0002-9492-054X 9",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  10. Gordon J Hedley, Arvydas Ruseckas and Ifor D W Samuel. Vibrational Energy Flow Controls Internal Conversion in a Transition Metal Complex. Journal of Physical Chemistry A 114(34):8961-8968, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Vibrational Energy Flow Controls Internal Conversion in a Transition Metal Complex,
    	author = "Hedley, Gordon J. and Ruseckas, Arvydas and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Vibrational Energy Flow Controls Internal Conversion in a Transition Metal Complex",
    	journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry A",
    	volume = 114,
    	number = 34,
    	pages = "8961-8968",
    	note = "Times Cited: 3 Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 3",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  11. Martin Heeney, Weimin Zhang, David J Crouch, Michael L Chabinyc, Sergey Gordeyev, Rick Hamilton, Simon J Higgins, Iain McCulloch, Peter J Skabara, David Sparrowe and Steve Tierney. Regioregular poly(3-hexyl) selenophene: a low band gap organic hole transporting polymer. Chemical Communications (47):5061-5063, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Regioregular poly(3-hexyl) selenophene: a low band gap organic hole transporting polymer,
    	author = "Heeney, Martin and Zhang, Weimin and Crouch, David J. and Chabinyc, Michael L. and Gordeyev, Sergey and Hamilton, Rick and Higgins, Simon J. and McCulloch, Iain and Skabara, Peter J. and Sparrowe, David and Tierney, Steve",
    	title = "Regioregular poly(3-hexyl) selenophene: a low band gap organic hole transporting polymer",
    	journal = "Chemical Communications",
    	number = 47,
    	pages = "5061-5063",
    	note = "Times Cited: 105 Chabinyc, Michael/E-2387-2011 107",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  12. Alexander L Kanibolotsky, Igor F Perepichka and Peter J Skabara. Star-shaped pi-conjugated oligomers and their applications in organic electronics and photonics. Chemical Society Reviews 39(7):2695-2728, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Star-shaped pi-conjugated oligomers and their applications in organic electronics and photonics,
    	author = "Kanibolotsky, Alexander L. and Perepichka, Igor F. and Skabara, Peter J.",
    	title = "Star-shaped pi-conjugated oligomers and their applications in organic electronics and photonics",
    	journal = "Chemical Society Reviews",
    	volume = 39,
    	number = 7,
    	pages = "2695-2728",
    	note = "Times Cited: 66 Kanibolotsky, Alexander/C-9877-2009 67",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  13. Alexander L Kanibolotsky, Filipe Vilela, John C Forgie, Saadeldin E T Elmasly, Peter J Skabara, Kai Zhang, Bernd Tieke, John McGurk, Colin R Belton, Paul N Stavrinou and D D C Bradley. Well-Defined and Monodisperse Linear and Star-Shaped Quaterfluorene-DPP Molecules: the Significance of Conjugation and Dimensionality. Advanced Materials 23(18):2093-+, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Well-Defined and Monodisperse Linear and Star-Shaped Quaterfluorene-DPP Molecules: the Significance of Conjugation and Dimensionality,
    	author = "Kanibolotsky, Alexander L. and Vilela, Filipe and Forgie, John C. and Elmasly, Saadeldin E. T. and Skabara, Peter J. and Zhang, Kai and Tieke, Bernd and McGurk, John and Belton, Colin R. and Stavrinou, Paul N. and Bradley, D. D. C.",
    	title = "Well-Defined and Monodisperse Linear and Star-Shaped Quaterfluorene-DPP Molecules: the Significance of Conjugation and Dimensionality",
    	journal = "Advanced Materials",
    	volume = 23,
    	number = 18,
    	pages = "2093-+",
    	note = "Times Cited: 5 Vilela, Filipe/C-5827-2009; Kanibolotsky, Alexander/C-9877-2009; Bradley, Donal/F-6068-2011; Zhang, Kai/B-1645-2012 5",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  14. Sandeep Kaur, Neil J Findlay, Alexander L Kanibolotsky, Saadeldin E T Elmasly, Peter J Skabara, Rory Berridge, Claire Wilson and Simon J Coles. Electrochromic properties of a poly(dithienylfuran) derivative featuring a redox-active dithiin unit. Polymer Chemistry 3(8):2277-2286, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Electrochromic properties of a poly(dithienylfuran) derivative featuring a redox-active dithiin unit,
    	author = "Kaur, Sandeep and Findlay, Neil J. and Kanibolotsky, Alexander L. and Elmasly, Saadeldin E. T. and Skabara, Peter J. and Berridge, Rory and Wilson, Claire and Coles, Simon J.",
    	title = "Electrochromic properties of a poly(dithienylfuran) derivative featuring a redox-active dithiin unit",
    	journal = "Polymer Chemistry",
    	volume = 3,
    	number = 8,
    	pages = "2277-2286",
    	note = "Times Cited: 2 Coles, Simon/A-1795-2009; Kanibolotsky, Alexander/C-9877-2009 Coles, Simon/0000-0001-8414-9272; 2",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  15. K Kawata, V M Burlakov, M J Carey, H E Assender, G A D Briggs, A Ruseckas and I D W Samuel. Description of exciton transport in a TiO2/MEH-PPV heterojunction photovoltaic material. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 87(1-4):715-724, 2005.
    BibTeX

    @article{Description of exciton transport in a TiO2/MEH-PPV heterojunction photovoltaic material,
    	author = "Kawata, K. and Burlakov, V. M. and Carey, M. J. and Assender, H. E. and Briggs, G. A. D. and Ruseckas, A. and Samuel, I. D. W.",
    	title = "Description of exciton transport in a TiO2/MEH-PPV heterojunction photovoltaic material",
    	journal = "Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells",
    	volume = 87,
    	number = "1-4",
    	pages = "715-724",
    	note = "Times Cited: 8 Burlakov, Victor/B-8437-2008; Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 Si International Conference on Physics, Chemistry and Engineering of Solar Cells May 13-15, 2004 Univ Extremadura, Sch Ind Engn, Badajoz, SPAIN 8",
    	year = 2005
    }
    
  16. David J Keeble, Elizabeth A Thomsen, Alexandros Stavrinadis, Ifor D W Samuel, Jason M Smith and Andrew A R Watt. Paramagnetic Point Defects and Charge Carriers in PbS and CdS Nanocrystal Polymer Composites. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(40):17306-17312, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{Paramagnetic Point Defects and Charge Carriers in PbS and CdS Nanocrystal Polymer Composites,
    	author = "Keeble, David J. and Thomsen, Elizabeth A. and Stavrinadis, Alexandros and Samuel, Ifor D. W. and Smith, Jason M. and Watt, Andrew A. R.",
    	title = "Paramagnetic Point Defects and Charge Carriers in PbS and CdS Nanocrystal Polymer Composites",
    	journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry C",
    	volume = 113,
    	number = 40,
    	pages = "17306-17312",
    	note = "Times Cited: 7 Watt, Andrew/G-6813-2011; Smith, Jason/I-5313-2012; Keeble, David /C-6633-2012 Smith, Jason/0000-0002-4572-0867; Keeble, David /0000-0002-5378-799X 7",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  17. A J Lewis, A Ruseckas, O P M Gaudin, G R Webster, P L Burn and I D W Samuel. Singlet exciton diffusion in MEH-PPV films studied by exciton-exciton annihilation. Organic Electronics 7(6):452-456, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @article{Singlet exciton diffusion in MEH-PPV films studied by exciton-exciton annihilation,
    	author = "Lewis, A. J. and Ruseckas, A. and Gaudin, O. P. M. and Webster, G. R. and Burn, P. L. and Samuel, I. D. W.",
    	title = "Singlet exciton diffusion in MEH-PPV films studied by exciton-exciton annihilation",
    	journal = "Organic Electronics",
    	volume = 7,
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "452-456",
    	note = "Times Cited: 60 Burn, Paul/F-5347-2010; Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 61",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  18. Electronically asymmetric poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene)s for photovoltaic cells. Organic Electronics 8(6):801-812, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Electronically asymmetric poly(1,
    	4-phenylenevinylene)s for photovoltaic cells, author = "Lochab, Bimlesh and Burn, Paul L. and Barkhouse, Aaron and Kirov, Kiril R. and Assender, Hazel E. and Keeble, David J. and Thomsen, Elizabeth A. and Lewis, Andrew J. and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Electronically asymmetric poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene)s for photovoltaic cells",
    	journal = "Organic Electronics",
    	volume = 8,
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "801-812",
    	note = "Times Cited: 1 Burn, Paul/F-5347-2010; Keeble, David /C-6633-2012 Keeble, David /0000-0002-5378-799X 1",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  19. Christopher R Mason, Yang Li, Paul O'Brien, Neil J Findlay and Peter J Skabara. Sexithiophenes as efficient luminescence quenchers of quantum dots. Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 7:1722-1731, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Sexithiophenes as efficient luminescence quenchers of quantum dots,
    	author = "Mason, Christopher R. and Li, Yang and O'Brien, Paul and Findlay, Neil J. and Skabara, Peter J.",
    	title = "Sexithiophenes as efficient luminescence quenchers of quantum dots",
    	journal = "Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry",
    	volume = 7,
    	pages = "1722-1731",
    	note = "Times Cited: 2 2",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  20. Synthesis and Electropolymerization of Hexadecyl Functionalized Bithiophene and Thieno 3,2-b thiophene End-Capped with EDOT and EDTT Units. Chemistry of Materials 22(9):3000-3008, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Synthesis and Electropolymerization of Hexadecyl Functionalized Bithiophene and Thieno 3,
    	2-b thiophene end-capped with edot and edtt units, author = "McEntee, Greg J. and Skabara, Peter J. and Vilela, Filipe and Tierney, Steven and Samuel, Ifor D. W. and Gambino, Salvatore and Coles, Simon J. and Hursthouse, Michael B. and Harrington, Ross W. and Clegg, William",
    	title = "Synthesis and Electropolymerization of Hexadecyl Functionalized Bithiophene and Thieno 3,2-b thiophene End-Capped with EDOT and EDTT Units",
    	journal = "Chemistry of Materials",
    	volume = 22,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "3000-3008",
    	note = "Times Cited: 9 Vilela, Filipe/C-5827-2009; Coles, Simon/A-1795-2009; National Crystallography Service, NCS/E-6842-2010; Hursthouse, Michael/B-9885-2011 Coles, Simon/0000-0001-8414-9272; Hursthouse, Michael/0000-0002-9492-054X 9",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  21. Vikas Nandwana, Luis A Serrano, Kyril M Solntsev, Bernd Ebenhoch, Qian Liu, Gulen Y Tonga, Ifor D W Samuel, Graeme Cooke and Vincent M Rotello. Engineering the Nanoscale Morphology of a Quantum Dot-Fullerene Assembly via Complementary Hydrogen Bonding Interactions. Langmuir 29(24):7534-7537, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Engineering the Nanoscale Morphology of a Quantum Dot-Fullerene Assembly via Complementary Hydrogen Bonding Interactions,
    	author = "Nandwana, Vikas and Serrano, Luis A. and Solntsev, Kyril M. and Ebenhoch, Bernd and Liu, Qian and Tonga, Gulen Y. and Samuel, Ifor D. W. and Cooke, Graeme and Rotello, Vincent M.",
    	title = "Engineering the Nanoscale Morphology of a Quantum Dot-Fullerene Assembly via Complementary Hydrogen Bonding Interactions",
    	journal = "Langmuir",
    	volume = 29,
    	number = 24,
    	pages = "7534-7537",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 0",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  22. Vikas Nandwana, Chandramouleeswaran Subramani, Serkan Eymur, Yi-Cheun Yeh, Gulen Yesilbag Tonga, Murat Tonga, Youngdo Jeong, Boqian Yang, Michael D Barnes, Graeme Cooke and Vincent M Rotello. Recognition-Mediated Assembly of Quantum Dot Polymer Conjugates with Controlled Morphology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12(9):6357-6366, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Recognition-Mediated Assembly of Quantum Dot Polymer Conjugates with Controlled Morphology,
    	author = "Nandwana, Vikas and Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran and Eymur, Serkan and Yeh, Yi-Cheun and Tonga, Gulen Yesilbag and Tonga, Murat and Jeong, Youngdo and Yang, Boqian and Barnes, Michael D. and Cooke, Graeme and Rotello, Vincent M.",
    	title = "Recognition-Mediated Assembly of Quantum Dot Polymer Conjugates with Controlled Morphology",
    	journal = "International Journal of Molecular Sciences",
    	volume = 12,
    	number = 9,
    	pages = "6357-6366",
    	note = "Times Cited: 3 3",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  23. F A Nueesch, H M Upadhyaya, T M Razykov and A N Tiwari. Introduction to the special issue on organic photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cells Preface. Solar Energy 85(6):1171-1171, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Introduction to the special issue on organic photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cells Preface,
    	author = "Nueesch, F. A. and Upadhyaya, H. M. and Razykov, T. M. and Tiwari, A. N.",
    	title = "Introduction to the special issue on organic photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cells Preface",
    	journal = "Solar Energy",
    	volume = 85,
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "1171-1171",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Si 0",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  24. Ajay K Pandey and Ifor D W Samuel. Photophysics of Solution-Processed Transparent Solar Cells Under Top and Bottom Illumination. Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 16(6):1560-1564, 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Photophysics of Solution-Processed Transparent Solar Cells Under Top and Bottom Illumination,
    	author = "Pandey, Ajay K. and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Photophysics of Solution-Processed Transparent Solar Cells Under Top and Bottom Illumination",
    	journal = "Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics",
    	volume = 16,
    	number = 6,
    	pages = "1560-1564",
    	note = "Times Cited: 2 Pandey, Ajay/B-5562-2008 Pandey, Ajay/0000-0002-6599-745X 2",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  25. Ajay K Pandey, Paul E Shaw, Ifor D W Samuel and Jean-Michel Nunzi. Effect of metal cathode reflectance on the exciton-dissociation efficiency in heterojunction organic solar cells. Applied Physics Letters 94(10), 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{Effect of metal cathode reflectance on the exciton-dissociation efficiency in heterojunction organic solar cells,
    	author = "Pandey, Ajay K. and Shaw, Paul E. and Samuel, Ifor D. W. and Nunzi, Jean-Michel",
    	title = "Effect of metal cathode reflectance on the exciton-dissociation efficiency in heterojunction organic solar cells",
    	journal = "Applied Physics Letters",
    	volume = 94,
    	number = 10,
    	note = "Times Cited: 24 Pandey, Ajay/B-5562-2008; Shaw, Paul/B-3718-2011; nunzi, jean-michel/D-3777-2009 Pandey, Ajay/0000-0002-6599-745X; Shaw, Paul/0000-0002-3326-3670; nunzi, jean-michel/0000-0001-5490-4273 24",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  26. Naphthyl Derivatives Functionalised with Electron Acceptor Units - Synthesis, Electronic Characterisation and DFT Calculations. European Journal of Organic Chemistry (26):4947-4953, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Naphthyl Derivatives Functionalised with Electron Acceptor Units - Synthesis,
    	electronic characterisation and dft calculations, author = "Planells, Miquel and Robertson, Neil",
    	title = "Naphthyl Derivatives Functionalised with Electron Acceptor Units - Synthesis, Electronic Characterisation and DFT Calculations",
    	journal = "European Journal of Organic Chemistry",
    	number = 26,
    	pages = "4947-4953",
    	note = "Times Cited: 1 1",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  27. Arvydas Ruseckas, Paul E Shaw and Ifor D W Samuel. Probing the nanoscale phase separation in binary photovoltaic blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerene by energy transfer. Dalton Transactions (45):10040-10043, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{Probing the nanoscale phase separation in binary photovoltaic blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerene by energy transfer,
    	author = "Ruseckas, Arvydas and Shaw, Paul E. and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Probing the nanoscale phase separation in binary photovoltaic blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and methanofullerene by energy transfer",
    	journal = "Dalton Transactions",
    	number = 45,
    	pages = "10040-10043",
    	note = "Times Cited: 11 Shaw, Paul/B-3718-2011; Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 Shaw, Paul/0000-0002-3326-3670; 11",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  28. I D W Samuel. Polymer electronics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 358(1765):193-210, 2000.
    BibTeX

    @article{Polymer electronics,
    	author = "Samuel, I. D. W.",
    	title = "Polymer electronics",
    	journal = "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences",
    	volume = 358,
    	number = 1765,
    	pages = "193-210",
    	note = "Times Cited: 24 24",
    	year = 2000
    }
    
  29. Z H Kafafi and P A Lane (eds.). Exciton annihilation and diffusion in semiconducting polymers. Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (Spie) series, volume 6334, pages U63-U70, 2006.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{Exciton annihilation and diffusion in semiconducting polymers,
    	author = "Shaw, P. E. and Lewis, A. J. and Ruseckas, A. and Samuel, I. D. W.",
    	title = "Exciton annihilation and diffusion in semiconducting polymers",
    	booktitle = "Organic Photovoltaics VII",
    	editor = "Kafafi, Z. H. and Lane, P. A.",
    	series = "Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (Spie)",
    	volume = 6334,
    	pages = "U63-U70",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Shaw, Paul/B-3718-2011; Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 Shaw, Paul/0000-0002-3326-3670; Conference on Organic Photovoltaics VII Aug 15-17, 2006 San Diego, CA Spie",
    	year = 2006
    }
    
  30. Paul E Shaw, Arvydas Ruseckas and Ifor D W Samuel. Distance dependence of excitation energy transfer between spacer-separated conjugated polymer films. Physical Review B 78(24), 2008.
    BibTeX

    @article{Distance dependence of excitation energy transfer between spacer-separated conjugated polymer films,
    	author = "Shaw, Paul E. and Ruseckas, Arvydas and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Distance dependence of excitation energy transfer between spacer-separated conjugated polymer films",
    	journal = "Physical Review B",
    	volume = 78,
    	number = 24,
    	note = "Times Cited: 15 Shaw, Paul/B-3718-2011; Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 Shaw, Paul/0000-0002-3326-3670; 15",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  31. Paul E Shaw, Arvydas Ruseckas and Ifor D W Samuel. Exciton diffusion measurements in poly(3-hexylthiophene). Advanced Materials 20(18):3516-+, 2008.
    BibTeX

    @article{Exciton diffusion measurements in poly(3-hexylthiophene),
    	author = "Shaw, Paul E. and Ruseckas, Arvydas and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Exciton diffusion measurements in poly(3-hexylthiophene)",
    	journal = "Advanced Materials",
    	volume = 20,
    	number = 18,
    	pages = "3516-+",
    	note = "Times Cited: 223 Shaw, Paul/B-3718-2011; Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 Shaw, Paul/0000-0002-3326-3670; 223",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  32. Peter J Skabara, Jean-Baptiste Arlin and Yves H Geerts. Close Encounters of the 3D Kind Exploiting High Dimensionality in Molecular Semiconductors. Advanced Materials 25(13):1948-1954, 2013.
    BibTeX

    @article{Close Encounters of the 3D Kind Exploiting High Dimensionality in Molecular Semiconductors,
    	author = "Skabara, Peter J. and Arlin, Jean-Baptiste and Geerts, Yves H.",
    	title = "Close Encounters of the 3D Kind Exploiting High Dimensionality in Molecular Semiconductors",
    	journal = "Advanced Materials",
    	volume = 25,
    	number = 13,
    	pages = "1948-1954",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Si 0",
    	year = 2013
    }
    
  33. Photoconductive polymer for photovoltaic device comprises heterocyclic residues composed of thiophene units fused to tetrathiafulvalene units, where thiophene units are conjugated to, and linked by, olefinic double bonds.
    BibTeX

    @misc{Photoconductive polymer for photovoltaic device comprises heterocyclic residues composed of thiophene units fused to tetrathiafulvalene units,
    	where thiophene units are conjugated to, and linked by, olefinic double bonds, author = "Skabara, P. J. and Berridge, R.",
    	title = "Photoconductive polymer for photovoltaic device comprises heterocyclic residues composed of thiophene units fused to tetrathiafulvalene units, where thiophene units are conjugated to, and linked by, olefinic double bonds",
    	publisher = "Univ Manchester",
    	isbn = "US2006289058-A1"
    }
    
  34. Peter J Skabara, Rory Berridge, Igor M Serebryakov, Alexander L Kanibolotsky, Lyudmila Kanibolotskaya, Sergey Gordeyev, Igor F Perepichka, Serdar N Sariciftci and Christoph Winder. Fluorene functionalised sexithiophenes - utilising intramolecular charge transfer to extend the photocurrent spectrum in organic solar cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry 17(11):1055-1062, 2007.
    BibTeX

    @article{Fluorene functionalised sexithiophenes - utilising intramolecular charge transfer to extend the photocurrent spectrum in organic solar cells,
    	author = "Skabara, Peter J. and Berridge, Rory and Serebryakov, Igor M. and Kanibolotsky, Alexander L. and Kanibolotskaya, Lyudmila and Gordeyev, Sergey and Perepichka, Igor F. and Sariciftci, N. Serdar and Winder, Christoph",
    	title = "Fluorene functionalised sexithiophenes - utilising intramolecular charge transfer to extend the photocurrent spectrum in organic solar cells",
    	journal = "Journal of Materials Chemistry",
    	volume = 17,
    	number = 11,
    	pages = "1055-1062",
    	note = "Times Cited: 13 Kanibolotsky, Alexander/C-9877-2009 13",
    	year = 2007
    }
    
  35. Ahmed M Soliman, Daniel Fortin, Pierre D Harvey and Eli Zysman-Colman. Hybrid charged heterometallic Pt-Ir complexes: tailoring excited states by taking the best of both worlds. Chemical Communications 48(8):1120-1122, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Hybrid charged heterometallic Pt-Ir complexes: tailoring excited states by taking the best of both worlds,
    	author = "Soliman, Ahmed M. and Fortin, Daniel and Harvey, Pierre D. and Zysman-Colman, Eli",
    	title = "Hybrid charged heterometallic Pt-Ir complexes: tailoring excited states by taking the best of both worlds",
    	journal = "Chemical Communications",
    	volume = 48,
    	number = 8,
    	pages = "1120-1122",
    	note = "Times Cited: 7 Zysman-Colman, Eli/J-6102-2012 7",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  36. Photoinduced charge separation in poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene) derivatives studied by electron paramagnetic resonance. Organic Electronics 9(5):809-815, 2008.
    BibTeX

    @article{Photoinduced charge separation in poly(1,
    	4-phenylenevinylene) derivatives studied by electron paramagnetic resonance, author = "Thomsen, E. A. and Keeble, D. J. and Lochab, B. and Burn, P. L. and El-Mkami, H. and Samuel, I. D. W.",
    	title = "Photoinduced charge separation in poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene) derivatives studied by electron paramagnetic resonance",
    	journal = "Organic Electronics",
    	volume = 9,
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "809-815",
    	note = "Times Cited: 1 Burn, Paul/F-5347-2010; Keeble, David /C-6633-2012 Keeble, David /0000-0002-5378-799X 1",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  37. F So and C Adachi (eds.). Light-emitting diode pumped polymer lasers. Proceedings of SPIE series, volume 7051, 2008.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{Light-emitting diode pumped polymer lasers,
    	author = "Turnbull, G. A. and Yang, Y. and Shaw, P. and Ruseckas, A. and Samuel, I. D. W.",
    	title = "Light-emitting diode pumped polymer lasers",
    	booktitle = "Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices Xii",
    	editor = "So, F. and Adachi, C.",
    	series = "Proceedings of SPIE",
    	volume = 7051,
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Ruseckas, Arvydas/A-6323-2009 12th Conference on Organic Light Emitting Materials and Devices Aug 10-12, 2008 San Diego, CA Spie",
    	year = 2008
    }
    
  38. Jansen R Vuuren, K D Johnstone, S Ratnasingam, H Barcena, P C Deakin, A K Pandey, P L Burn, S Collins and I D W Samuel. Determining the absorption tolerance of single chromophore photodiodes for machine vision. Applied Physics Letters 96(25), 2010.
    BibTeX

    @article{Determining the absorption tolerance of single chromophore photodiodes for machine vision,
    	author = "van Vuuren, R. Jansen and Johnstone, K. D. and Ratnasingam, S. and Barcena, H. and Deakin, P. C. and Pandey, A. K. and Burn, P. L. and Collins, S. and Samuel, I. D. W.",
    	title = "Determining the absorption tolerance of single chromophore photodiodes for machine vision",
    	journal = "Applied Physics Letters",
    	volume = 96,
    	number = 25,
    	note = "Times Cited: 1 Burn, Paul/F-5347-2010; Pandey, Ajay/B-5562-2008; Jansen-van Vuuren, Ross/B-9883-2008 Pandey, Ajay/0000-0002-6599-745X; 1",
    	year = 2010
    }
    
  39. R Shinar and I Kymissis (eds.). Conjugated polymer sensors for explosive vapor detection. Proceedings of SPIE series, volume 8118, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @inbook{Conjugated polymer sensors for explosive vapor detection,
    	author = "Wang, Yue and Turnbull, Graham A. and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Conjugated polymer sensors for explosive vapor detection",
    	booktitle = "Organic Semiconductors in Sensors and Bioelectronics Iv",
    	editor = "Shinar, R. and Kymissis, I.",
    	series = "Proceedings of SPIE",
    	volume = 8118,
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Conference on Organic Semiconductors in Sensors and Bioelectronics IV Aug 24-25, 2011 San Diego, CA Spie",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  40. Yue Wang, Ying Yang, Graham A Turnbull and Ifor D W Samuel. Explosive Sensing Using Polymer Lasers. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 554:103-110, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Explosive Sensing Using Polymer Lasers,
    	author = "Wang, Yue and Yang, Ying and Turnbull, Graham A. and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Explosive Sensing Using Polymer Lasers",
    	journal = "Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals",
    	volume = 554,
    	pages = "103-110",
    	note = "Times Cited: 0 Si 11th International Conference on Frontiers of Polymers and Advanced Materials (ICFPAM) - Emerging Technologies and Business Opportunities May 22-27, 2011 Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA Univ Pretoria 0",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  41. Alexander J Ward, Arvydas Ruseckas and Ifor D W Samuel. A Shift from Diffusion Assisted to Energy Transfer Controlled Fluorescence Quenching in Polymer-Fullerene Photovoltaic Blends. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116(45):23931-23937, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{A Shift from Diffusion Assisted to Energy Transfer Controlled Fluorescence Quenching in Polymer-Fullerene Photovoltaic Blends,
    	author = "Ward, Alexander J. and Ruseckas, Arvydas and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "A Shift from Diffusion Assisted to Energy Transfer Controlled Fluorescence Quenching in Polymer-Fullerene Photovoltaic Blends",
    	journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry C",
    	volume = 116,
    	number = 45,
    	pages = "23931-23937",
    	note = "Times Cited: 1 1",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  42. Iain A Wright, Alexander L Kanibolotsky, Joseph Cameron, Tell Tuttle, Peter J Skabara, Simon J Coles, Calvyn T Howells, Stuart A J Thomson, Salvatore Gambino and Ifor D W Samuel. Oligothiophene Cruciform with a Germanium Spiro Center: A Promising Material for Organic Photovoltaics. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 51(19):4562-4567, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Oligothiophene Cruciform with a Germanium Spiro Center: A Promising Material for Organic Photovoltaics,
    	author = "Wright, Iain A. and Kanibolotsky, Alexander L. and Cameron, Joseph and Tuttle, Tell and Skabara, Peter J. and Coles, Simon J. and Howells, Calvyn T. and Thomson, Stuart A. J. and Gambino, Salvatore and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Oligothiophene Cruciform with a Germanium Spiro Center: A Promising Material for Organic Photovoltaics",
    	journal = "Angewandte Chemie-International Edition",
    	volume = 51,
    	number = 19,
    	pages = "4562-4567",
    	note = "Times Cited: 8 Coles, Simon/A-1795-2009; Kanibolotsky, Alexander/C-9877-2009; Tuttle, Tell/E-6205-2011 Coles, Simon/0000-0001-8414-9272; Tuttle, Tell/0000-0003-2300-8921 8",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  43. Electronic, redox and charge transport properties of an unusual hybrid structure: a bis(septithiophene) bridged by a fused tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Journal of Materials Chemistry 21(5):1462-1469, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Electronic,
    	redox and charge transport properties of an unusual hybrid structure: a bis(septithiophene) bridged by a fused tetrathiafulvalene (ttf), author = "Wright, Iain A. and Skabara, Peter J. and Forgie, John C. and Kanibolotsky, Alexander L. and Gonzalez, Blanca and Coles, Simon J. and Gambino, Salvatore and Samuel, Ifor D. W.",
    	title = "Electronic, redox and charge transport properties of an unusual hybrid structure: a bis(septithiophene) bridged by a fused tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)",
    	journal = "Journal of Materials Chemistry",
    	volume = 21,
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "1462-1469",
    	note = "Times Cited: 4 Kanibolotsky, Alexander/C-9877-2009; Coles, Simon/A-1795-2009 Coles, Simon/0000-0001-8414-9272 4",
    	year = 2011
    }
    
  44. Xi Yu, Serkan Eymur, Vijay Singh, Boqian Yang, Murat Tonga, Amarnath Bheemaraju, Graeme Cooke, Chandramouleeswaran Subramani, Dhandapani Venkataraman, Robert J Stanley and Vincent M Rotello. Flavin as a photo-active acceptor for efficient energy and charge transfer in a model donor-acceptor system. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 14(19):6749-6754, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Flavin as a photo-active acceptor for efficient energy and charge transfer in a model donor-acceptor system,
    	author = "Yu, Xi and Eymur, Serkan and Singh, Vijay and Yang, Boqian and Tonga, Murat and Bheemaraju, Amarnath and Cooke, Graeme and Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran and Venkataraman, Dhandapani and Stanley, Robert J. and Rotello, Vincent M.",
    	title = "Flavin as a photo-active acceptor for efficient energy and charge transfer in a model donor-acceptor system",
    	journal = "Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics",
    	volume = 14,
    	number = 19,
    	pages = "6749-6754",
    	note = "Times Cited: 2 2",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  45. Electrochemical Polymerisation of N-Arylated and N-Alkylated EDOT-Substituted Pyrrolo 3,4-c pyrrole-1,4-dione (DPP) Derivatives: Influence of Substitution Pattern on Optical and Electronic Properties. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 30(21):1834-1840, 2009.
    BibTeX

    @article{Electrochemical Polymerisation of N-Arylated and N-Alkylated EDOT-Substituted Pyrrolo 3,
    	4-c pyrrole-1,4-dione (dpp) derivatives: influence of substitution pattern on optical and electronic properties, author = "Zhang, Kai and Tieke, Bernd and Forgie, John C. and Skabara, Peter J.",
    	title = "Electrochemical Polymerisation of N-Arylated and N-Alkylated EDOT-Substituted Pyrrolo 3,4-c pyrrole-1,4-dione (DPP) Derivatives: Influence of Substitution Pattern on Optical and Electronic Properties",
    	journal = "Macromolecular Rapid Communications",
    	volume = 30,
    	number = 21,
    	pages = "1834-1840",
    	note = "Times Cited: 6 Zhang, Kai/B-1645-2012; Forgie, John/C-6972-2009 6",
    	year = 2009
    }
    
  46. Kai Zhang, Bernd Tieke, John C Forgie, Filipe Vilela and Peter J Skabara. Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers Based on p- and o-Benzodifuranone and Thiophene Derivatives: Electrochemical Preparation and Optical and Electronic Properties. Macromolecules 45(2):743-750, 2012.
    BibTeX

    @article{Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers Based on p- and o-Benzodifuranone and Thiophene Derivatives: Electrochemical Preparation and Optical and Electronic Properties,
    	author = "Zhang, Kai and Tieke, Bernd and Forgie, John C. and Vilela, Filipe and Skabara, Peter J.",
    	title = "Donor-Acceptor Conjugated Polymers Based on p- and o-Benzodifuranone and Thiophene Derivatives: Electrochemical Preparation and Optical and Electronic Properties",
    	journal = "Macromolecules",
    	volume = 45,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "743-750",
    	note = "Times Cited: 6 Zhang, Kai/B-1645-2012; Vilela, Filipe/C-5827-2009 6",
    	year = 2012
    }
    
  47. Conjugated Microporous Networks on the Basis of 2,3,5,6-Tetraarylated Diketopyrrolo 3,4-c pyrrole. Macromolecular Rapid Communications 32(11):825-830, 2011.
    BibTeX

    @article{Conjugated Microporous Networks on the Basis of 2,
    	3,5,6-tetraarylated diketopyrrolo 3,4-c pyrrole, author = "Zhang, Kai and Tieke, Bernd and Vilela, Filipe and Skabara, Peter J.",
    	title = "Conjugated Microporous Networks on the Basis of 2,3,5,6-Tetraarylated Diketopyrrolo 3,4-c pyrrole",
    	journal = "Macromolecular Rapid Communications",
    	volume = 32,
    	number = 11,
    	pages = "825-830",
    	note = "Times Cited: 14 Vilela, Filipe/C-5827-2009; Zhang, Kai/B-1645-2012 14",
    	year = 2011
    }